Arabs in Pakistan

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Arabs in Pakistan
العرب في باكستان
پاکستان میں عرب
Regions with significant populations
Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, North-West Frontier Province
Languages
Arabic, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu
Religion
Islam (Sunni, Shia)

Arabs in Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان میں عرب‎) consist of migrants from different countries of the Arab world, especially Egypt, Oman, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Jordan and Yemen and have a long history. The first form of contact between the Arab people and modern-day Pakistan originally came in 711 to Sindh, known as Nairs when Muhammad bin Qasim, an Arab military general, was on a quest to free Muslims and their families who had apparently been arrested by Raja Dahir's soldiers while they were returning in a merchant ship to their homes in Iraq's city of Basra from Sri Lanka.[1]

History

The ship was hauled up by looters while it was passing a port located in the Sindh province of Pakistan and the people were taken as captives. At that time, Hajjaj bin Yusuf was the governor of present-day Iraq. Upon hearing the news, he wrote to Raja Dahir and demanded him to release the prisoners. Raja Dahir, who was the king of Sindh at that time, he denied to have to do anything with it, which tempted Hajjaj to order Muhammad bin Qasim to proceed to Sindh along with an army unit of 6,000 troops in order to get the prisoners released. Muhammad bin Qasim was hardly seventeen years of age at that time, however he was a ruthless and capable military commander, the main reason for which Hajjaj may have recruited him.

After being deployed to Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir's troops and the prisoners were liberated. He also conquered Sindh and annexed the entire areas up to Multan, into Muslim territory. From that time on, Pakistan experienced its first formal contact with the Arabs and there were significant elements of Arab culture, food, sciences, arts and traditions brought into the region. This period also marked the introduction of Islam into what is now Pakistan which thrived and flourished considerably. Today, Islam is the predominant state-religion of Pakistan.

After the death of Qasim, the areas of Sindh continued to remain under Arab rule for two centuries.

Migrants

According to many statistics, the total number of Arabs in Pakistan, both legal and non-legal residents, still number in the thousands, and reside in the country.[2]

Egyptians

There were 1,500 Egyptians living in Pakistan during the 1990s. Following the 1995 attack on the Egyptian Embassy in Pakistan by Egyptian radicals, the Egyptian government renewed its security focus and collaborated with the Pakistani government to remove Egyptians from the country whom it deemed as shady elements; consequently, many Egyptians living in Pakistan were expelled or faced a discriminate crackdown. An extradition treaty was signed between the two countries, ensuring that any wanted Egyptians apprehended in Pakistan could be more efficiently mainlined back to Cairo.[3]

Emiratis

Emirati nationals and royalty periodically visit Pakistan for hunting falcons, especially Macqueen's bustards (or Asian houbara). In Rahim Yar Khan, Sheikh Zayed built his own summer palace and an airport for his personal use whenever he visited Pakistan for hunting and recreation. The tradition has been revived by many other royal figures, amid rage by ecologists over the declining population of falcons.[4] A notable Emirati who lived in Pakistan is Suhail Al Zarooni, who is also half-Pakistani.

Iraqis

There are numerous Sayyids/ Syed/ Sayyid/ Shah / Sharif (Arabs) in Pakistan. Some of these (Arabs) Sayyids first migrated to Gardez, Bukhara, and Termez, and then to South Asia. Many settled early in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Punjab. There are many sayyids of both Shia and Sunni sects of Islam. Amongst the famous Sayyids who migrated to this region were Shah Yousaf Gardez of Multan, who came to Multan, Punjab, around 1050 AD. His grandfather, Syed Ali Qaswer, a decedent of Imam Jafar Sadiq, the grandson of Imam Hussain, migrated from Bughdad and was settled in Gardez, Afghanistan. The Gardezis of Pakistan and the Azad of Jammu and Kashmir are his descendants. Other saints include Syed Ali Shah Tirmizi (Pir Baba) of Buner, Syed Kastir Gul (Kaka Sahib) of Nowshera, Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, Shaykh Syed Mir Mirak Andrabi of Khanqi Andrabi in Kashmir, Haji Syed Ahmed Shah (Haji Baba) of Dir and Sayyid Muhammad Al-Makki. Sayyid people of Pakistan are figured as the most prominent and well-established people of the country, with a number of them having become popular and well-known religious icons, political leaders, and professionals. Furthermore, Pakistan currently holds the largest Sayyid population in all of South Asia. [5] Mashwanis are also living in Pakistan.

Jordanians

Jordanians in Pakistan are mostly students.[5]

Omanis

Oman lies in close proximity to Pakistan. Immigration between the two states has been common. Pakistani immigrants from Balochistan have formed settlements in Oman for decades and have obtained Omani citizenship. Many of these Omani Balochis, who have absorbed into Omani society, maintain migration and contact with Balochistan.

Palestinians

Palestinians in Pakistan once had a total population as high as 8,000 during the 1970s.[6][7] Now, however, the community has considerably reduced to figures ranging between 400 and 500, and only a partial number of families still remain in the country. Most Palestinians found in Pakistan are most commonly students of medicine and engineering, seeking education in various universities and institutions across Karachi, Lahore, Hyderabad, Quetta and Multan. Settled families on the other hand, are primarily based in Islamabad and Karachi.

The recent years have shown a decrease in the number of Palestinians migrating to the country, as students increasingly opt to complete undergraduate degrees in Middle Eastern countries such as Jordan. The Pakistani government reserves 50 seats for Palestinian students in universities across the country: 13 are for medicine, 4 for dentistry, 23 for engineering, and 10 for pharmacy. Eight scholarships are also offered.

During the Soviet-Afghan war, there were numerous Palestinians who took aid and shelter in Pakistan while fighting alongside the U.S.-backed guerillas against the Soviet Union. Abdullah Yusuf Azzam was one of those Palestinians who stayed in Pakistan.

Saudis

There were 250 to 300 Saudi nationals in Pakistan as of 2009.[8]

Syrians

There are about 200 Syrians in Pakistan. There are also students from Syria studying in Pakistani institutions.[9] In May 2011, Syrian expatriates in Pakistan were seen protesting outside the Syrian embassy in Islamabad and condemning Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad and his regime, amid the Syrian protests back home.[10]

Yemeni

Many Muhajir communities in Pakistan, such as the Chaush, Nawayath and the Arabs of Gujarat, are of Hadhrami descent from modern-day Yemen. A considerable proportion of Arabs in Pakistan come from Yemen.[11]

Tribes with Arabic heritage

In Punjab, There are numerous Sayyids and Nairs in Pakistan. Some of these Sayyids first migrated to Gardez, Bukhara, and Termez, and then to South Asia. Many settled early in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Punjab. There are many sayyids of both Shia and Sunni sects of Islam, while Nairs are of Sunni descent. Amongst the famous Sayyids who migrated to this region were Shah Yousaf Gardez of Multan, who came to Multan, Punjab, around 1050 AD. His grandfather, Syed Ali Qaswer, a decedent of Imam Jafar Sadiq, the grandson of Imam Hussain, migrated from Bughdad and was settled in Gardez, Afghanistan. The Gardezis of Pakistan and the Azad of Jammu and Kashmir are his descendants. Other saints include Syed Ali Shah Tirmizi (Pir Baba) of Buner, Syed Kastir Gul of Nowshera, Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, Shaykh Syed Mir Mirak Andrabi of Khanqi Andrabi in Kashmir, Haji Syed Ahmed Shah(Haji Baba) of Dir and Sayyid Muhammad Al-Makki. Sayyid people of Pakistan are figured as the most prominent and well-established people of the country, with a number of them having become popular and well-known religious icons, political leaders, and professionals. Furthermore, Pakistan currently holds the largest Sayyid population in all of South Asia. Mashwanis are also living in Pakistan.[citation needed]

Syeds, Khawajas and Shaikhs

There are then a numerous number of Syeds or Khawajas (descendants of Muhammad) in Pakistan, who are yet another clear example of Pakistanis with Arabic heritage. Some of these Syeds first migrated to Bukhara and then to the South Asia. Others reportedly settled in Sindh to protect their lives against the atrocities of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs of Arabia. The Syed people of Pakistan are figured as the most prominent and well-established people of the country, with a number of them having become popular and well-known religious icons, political leaders and professionals.[12]

Many members of the Khawaja Shaikh and Shaikh communities in Pakistan, claim Arab ancestry. The Syeds, Sharifs, Abbaasi, Mashwanis, Quraishi, Chishti, Awan, Ansari, Osmani, Siddiqui, Poswal, and Farooqi all claim Arab ancestry.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Arab rule of Pakistan". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  2. ^ Gargan, Edward A. (1993-04-08). "Radical Arabs Use Pakistan as Base for Holy War". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  3. ^ Al-Qa`ida’s Changing Outlook on Pakistan
  4. ^ Rage soars over Arab falcon hunting
  5. ^ DOCUMENTING TRANSNATIONAL MIGRATION Jordanian Men Working and Studying in Europe, Asia and North America. 
  6. ^ Palestinians Look For Prayers in Pakistan - Dawn News
  7. ^ Suffering Alone
  8. ^ Pakistan army may declare emergency Archived September 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Saudi Gazette.
  9. ^ Syrian nationals stages protest against detention of female blogger Archived October 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Syrians in Pakistan protest against Bashar, Dawn
  11. ^ South Asia Analysis Archived December 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ People of India by Herbert Risely
  13. ^ Punjab castes by Denzil Ibbetson
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