Arabid race

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Egyptian Bedouin man of mixed Arabid-Hamitic type.

The Arabid race (also Orientalid race) is a historical term for a morphological subtype of the Caucasoid race, as used in traditional physical anthropology.[1]


The Arabid race is thought to have originated within the Arabian Peninsula, and it is currently predominant there as well. It is a major element in the Levant region of the Middle East, and a minor element in other parts of Western Asia.[2]

The type is known as Araboid in forensic pathology and anthropology. In the Near East region, it is heavily mixed with the Armenoid race. This Armenoid-Araboid hybrid type is alternatively known as the Assyrid.[citation needed]

The ancient Phoenicians, who were ancestral to the Lebanese and Syrians, also generally belonged to this type. Gulf Arabs, also known as Arabian Arabs or true Arabs, among whom are the Saudis, Bahrainis, Kuwaitis, southern Iraqis and the Bedouins, are more frequently of classic Arabid type. In areas bordering the Iranian plateau, the Arabid type also not seldom merges with the Irano-Afghan race, a local Mediterranean subtype.[2]

In parts of North Africa, primarily among the Arabic-speaking Bedouin herders of the deserts and oases of the Maghreb and Egypt, the Arabid type fuses with another local Mediterranean subtype, the Hamitic, to produce a new hybrid morphological type. The Hamitic type, however, predominates throughout, especially among the Berbers as well as the Copts and Fellahin, since it is the taxon to which belonged most Ancient Libyans and Ancient Egyptians, respectively.[3][4][5]

A similar, minor Arabid element is found in parts of the Horn of Africa, having been introduced from the Persian Gulf region in historic times by the first Islamic proselytizers as well as the adjacent Himyarites and Sabaeans of Hadhramaut. However, here again the Arabid element is secondary to the predominant Hamitic type of the region's first Hamito-Semitic speakers, who were ancestral to the Somalis, Abyssinians and other Ethiopid populations.[6]

In the Sudan area, classic Arabid types can be found among the Kababish and certain other Arabic-speaking desert tribes collectively known as Sudanese Arabs. Here, they often occur in solution with the local Hamitic Mediterranean type, which was the morphological taxon to which belonged the A-Group, C-Group and Meroitic culture makers, among certain other early populations in the region. Elsewhere, Arabid elements fuse with the Negroid type of the region's indigenous Nilo-Saharan speakers, the Nilotes, thereby producing an Afro-Arab hybrid type.[7]

In the Iberian Peninsula, a rather tall, gracile, progressive, procopomorphic and high-skulled South Mediterranean type related to the Hamitic variety of North Africa is the predominant element. However, instead of Arabid, it is usually mixed here with low-skulled, long-skulled (dolichocephalic), short-statured Berid and West Mediterranid subtypes.[8][9]

Physical appearance

The Arabid race is distinguished from the West-Mediterranean race by some minor characteristic facial traits. The Arabid physical type had in earlier times a broader-formed Syrid subtype, which was found among the farmers of the Fertile Crescent.

See also


  1. ^ John R. Baker Race. — New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1974. — P. 625. ISBN 978-0-936396-04-0
  2. ^ a b "The Mediterranean race in Arabia". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  3. ^ "The modern Egyptians". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  4. ^ "The Tuareg". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  5. ^ "Eastern Barbary, Algeria and Tunisia". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  6. ^ "The Mediterranean race in East Africa". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  7. ^ Seligmann, C. G. (28 October 2017). "Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 593–705. doi:10.2307/2843546. JSTOR 2843546. 
  8. ^ "Systematic Appendix: The Races of Europe". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  9. ^ "The living races and peoples of Europe". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
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