April 1967

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April 27, 1967: Ostankino Tower finished
April 24, 1967: Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov killed on Soyuz 1 mission
April 9, 1967: Boeing 737 makes first flight
April 19, 1967: Surveyor 3 digs holes in the Moon

The following events occurred in April 1967:

April 1, 1967 (Saturday)

  • The United States Department of Transportation, created as a cabinet-level department separate from the U.S. Department of Commerce, began operations at 400 Seventh Street S.W. in Washington. As part of the opening day celebrations, new Transportation Secretary Alan S. Boyd arrived "in a horse-drawn omnibus" and "piloted a large yellow balloon" 20 feet above the National Mall.[1]
  • Radio Zurich, a radio network in Switzerland, played an April Fool's Day joke on thousands of its listeners, by frequently interrupting regular programming with bulletins about an American manned landing on the Moon. Telephone lines were jammed, hundreds of people traveled out to the countryside to watch for the re-entry of the mission, and even the American consulate in Zurich called the UPI news bureau in an attempt to confirm the story. "Belief in the story was increased," a UPI dispatch noted, "because there are no week-end newspapers in Switzerland and television does not start broadcasting until 6 p.m.".[2]
  • French Prime Minister Georges Pompidou and his cabinet resigned in an apparent political maneuver to get a mandate of approval from the incoming National Assembly.[3]
  • The Battle of Ap Gu ended after two days in South Vietnam's Tay Ninh Province as, the 1st Battalion of the 26th Infantry of the U.S. Army's 1st Infantry Division overcame an attack by the much larger 9th Viet Cong Division. The battalion commander, Lt. Colonel Alexander M. Haig, would win the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroism in flying into gunfire and defending against multiple assaults against the American encampment; Haig would rise through the ranks quickly, becoming a general two years later, and retiring as a four-star general in 1979. [4] The U.S. Army lost 17 men, compared to 609 Viet Cong soldiers. [5]

April 2, 1967 (Sunday)

  • Local elections began in 1,004 of the 2,526 villages in South Viet Nam, despite threats by the Viet Cong to attack polling places. The other 1,522 villages were either not in a secured area or were under the control of Viet Cong rebels. Village elections would be held every Sunday through May 7 as the new South Vietnamese constitution took effect.[6]
  • A United Nations delegation arrived in Aden as it approached independence. They would leave five days later, after accusing British authorities of a lack of cooperation. The British would say the delegation had not contacted them in advance.[7][8]
  • Born: Renée Estevez, American TV and film actress, daughter of actors Janet Sheen and Martin Sheen, and younger sister of actors Emilio Estevez, Ramon Estevez and Charlie Sheen; in New York City
  • Died:

April 3, 1967 (Monday)

  • Larry O'Brien, the United States Postmaster General (and the future Commissioner of the National Basketball Association) said in a speech that the U.S. Department of the Post Office should be abolished and replaced by a nonprofit government corporation. "If we ran our telephone system the way we run the post office, the carrier pigeon business would still have a great future," O'Brien told a gathering of magazine publishers and editors.[9] The Postal Reorganization Act would be signed in 1970 and the cabinet-level department would be replaced on July 1, 1971 by the U.S. Postal Service.
  • The island kingdom of Tonga adopted a new, decimal system of currency in advance of its full independence from the United Kingdom, replacing the Tongan pound, whose value had been tied to the Australian pound (and, for its final year, worth two Australian dollars). Whereas the Tongan pound had been divisible into 20 Tongan shillings or 240 Tongan pence, the new currency, the paʻanga (T$) could be divided into 100 seniti. The pa'anga was worth 10 Tongan shillings, and its value was on a par with one Australian dollar.[10]
  • Born: Andy Parsons, English comedian and writer, in Weymouth, Dorset

April 4, 1967 (Tuesday)

  • By a vote estimated to be 139 to 11 in favor, the parliament of Spain amended the nation's criminal code to provide for terms of up to six years in prison for journalists who were convicted of repeatedly criticizing the government, and up to six months for publishing any news deemed to be "false reports or information dangerous for morals or good customs, or contrary to the exigencies of national defense, of the security of the state, or of the maintenance of internal public order and external peace." Journalists could also be incarcerated if they showed a lack of "due respect for institutions and persons when criticizing political administrative action", including anything seen as an "attack" on the government of President Francisco Franco.[11]
  • In a speech titled Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence, his strongest antiwar declaration up to that time, Martin Luther King, Jr. denounced U.S. involvement in Vietnam and related his own discussions with African-Americans in the past several months. "I could never again raise my voice against the violence of the oppressed in the ghettos," King said, "without first having spoken clearly to the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today, our own government." King, who would be assassinated exactly one year later, addressed a gathering at the Riverside Church in New York City.[12][13]
  • The popular Peanuts comic strip entered a new era with the introduction of a new character that would later be given the name "Woodstock". [14] The tiny bird, who landed on Snoopy, would become the dog's sidekick, and the comic would gradually shift from the misfortunes of Charlie Brown to the adventures of dog and bird.[15]
  • Johnny Carson quit his job as host of The Tonight Show, the day after the NBC network had broadcast another rerun of one of his prior shows. Carson had not performed while the AFTRA strike continued against the American TV and radio networks.[16] During the two weeks after the AFTRA strike failed, singer Jimmy Dean and comedian Bob Newhart took over hosting duties. Carson would receive a raise and return on April 24.[17]
  • Died:

April 5, 1967 (Wednesday)

de Jong
Zijlstra
  • Piet de Jong formed a coalition government as the new Prime Minister of the Netherlands, replacing Jelle Zijlstra after the February parliamentary elections.[18]
  • Police in West Berlin arrested 11 people, most of them students, on accusations they planned to assassinate U.S. Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey during his April 6 visit.[19] The Spassguerrilla group, dedicated to humorous protests, would be released 34 hours later, after Humphrey's departure and after a search of their apartments showed that they were harmless and that their attack on the Humphrey motorcade would consist of wheat flour, soluble paint, pies and the Vice President's favorite dessert, pudding.[20]
  • Corazon Amurao, the only eyewitness to Richard Speck's murder of eight nurses on July 13, 1966, testified in his criminal trial in Peoria, Illinois, and pointed him out as the man who had killed her roommates. Miss Amurao had seen Speck when she opened the door to the bedroom she shared with two fellow nurses, but had been able to hide under a bed during the killings.[21]
  • Born: Anu Garg, Indian-born American writer and creator of wordsmith.org site, in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh
  • Died: Hermann Joseph Muller, 76, American geneticist, recipient of the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

April 6, 1967 (Thursday)

  • Bill Baird, an advocate for reform of restrictions against birth control, was arrested in front of 2,500 people at an auditorium at Boston University, shortly after announcing that he would challenge the Massachusetts state law. Baird handed a can of Emko spermicidal foam and a condom to a 19-year-old student and was taken off the stage by Boston police, who charged him with providing contraceptives to a minor, distributing medicines without a pharmacist or medical license, and "illegally exhibiting an obscene object".[22] Baird would fight his conviction to the U.S. Supreme Court which would, on March 22, 1972, reverse the lower courts in the case of Eisenstadt v. Baird.[23]
  • Marking the largest ransom in United States history up to that time, $250,000 was paid by the president of a bank in Beverly Hills, California, for the safe release of his 11-year-old son, who had been kidnapped from his home three days earlier.[24] A few days short of three years later, Ronald Lee Miller, an investigator for the Internal Revenue Service, would be indicted for the crime before the 3-year statute of limitations expired.[25] After his conviction, Miller would be sentenced to life imprisonment without parole.[26] None of the ransom money would ever be found.[27][28]
  • "The City on the Edge of Forever", a favorite episode of fans of the TV show Star Trek, was telecast for the first time, at 8:30 p.m. Eastern time and again at 8:30 Pacific time. One newspaper summarized that night's plot as "Under the influence of drugs, Dr. McCoy plunges through a time portal and into the New York City of the 1930s." [29]

April 7, 1967 (Friday)

  • Israeli Mirage jet fighters shot down six Syrian MiG-21s in one day, two months before the start of the Six-Day War.[30] Earlier in the day, Syrian troops fired from the Golan Heights at a tractor being driven by a farmer from the kibbutz of Gadot, and then began firing mortar shells in and around the community. Israeli tanks took up positions and fired back, and Syrian tanks then mobilized. At 1:30 in the afternoon, Israel's Mirage fighters began bombing and strafing the Golan Heights, and at 1:45, the Syrian Air Force scrambled its MiG-21s, which were all shot down in the battle, while the Israelis suffered no losses.[31] The first air battle began at 1:58 when a pair of Mirages fired at two MiGs that were patrolling over the Syrian capital, Damascus. Israeli pilot Iftach Spector downed both planes with the assistance of his wingman, Beni Romach.[32]
  • Born: Artemis Gounaki, German singer and vocal coach, in Munich, West Germany

April 8, 1967 (Saturday)

  • Forty-four residents of a slum in Seoul were killed when a South Korean Air Force C-46 transport plane crashed into their homes. All 15 people on the plane died as well.[33][34]
  • Max Delvalle was sworn in as acting President of Panama, becoming "the first Jewish president in the history of the Americas".[35] Delvalle, the primary vice president, was put in office while President Marco Aurelio Robles was in Uruguay for a conference of Latin American presidents, and served for a week until Robles returned.
  • As truck drivers in the International Brotherhood of Teamsters prepared to walk out on strike, trucking companies that were affiliated with Trucking Employers' Inc. (T.E.I.) began a lockout and turned away Teamsters drivers who were reporting to work. The move affected 250,000 drivers and an estimated 65% of the nation's over-the-road freight hauling.[36]
  • The Beagle B.121 Pup aircraft, a small airplane designed by the United Kingdom's Beagle Aircraft company, was flown for the first time. The Shoreham School of Flying would order the first models, with four Pup-100s and a Pup-150. [37]
  • One week after he and his cabinet resigned, French Prime Minister Georges Pompidou formed "a substantially unchanged cabinet" that included opposition party members who had lost re-election to parliament, including Foreign Minister Maurice Couve de Murville and Armed Forces Minister Pierre Messmer.[38]
  • Puppet on a String by Sandie Shaw (music and lyrics by Bill Martin and Phil Coulter) won the Eurovision Song Contest 1967 for the United Kingdom.
  • The Cosmos 154 Spacecraft, a variant of the Zond Spacecraft, is Launched into Low Earth Orbit. It Reenters the Earth's Atmosphere on April 10 1967.

April 9, 1967 (Sunday)

  • The Boeing 737 made its first flight. A pair of test pilots (Brien Wygle and Lew Wallick Jr.) [39] guided the plane on its takeoff from Boeing Field in Seattle, flew over the Pacific Northwest for two and a half hours at speeds of up to 530 miles per hour, then landed at the nearby Paine Field about 20 miles away near Everett, Washington.[40]

April 10, 1967 (Monday)

April 11, 1967 (Tuesday)

  • All 39 persons aboard an Air Algérie DC-4 were killed when the plane crashed into a hillside near the city of Ouargla in Algeria. The DC-4 was coming in for a final approach to the airport at Tamanrasset at the end of a flight from Algiers.[45][46]
  • Thailand allowed American B-52 bombers to begin flying bombing missions in Vietnam.[47]
  • Walter Cronkite returned to the CBS Evening News for the first time since the start of the AFTRA strike on March 28. During his absence, Arnold Zenker, the network's manager of news programming, delivered the news, announcing each day that he was "sitting in" for Cronkite. On his return, Cronkite opened by joking, "Good evening. This is Walter Cronkite, sitting in for Arnold Zenker. It's good to be back." [48] During the strike, ABC producer Daryl Griffin substituted for regular anchor Peter Jennings, and Chet Huntley operated without David Brinkley during NBC's nightly Huntley-Brinkley Report.[49]
  • Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. won a special election to for New York State's 18th Congressional District, to fill the vacancy caused after the House of Representatives had voted in January not to seat him. Powell's constituents, located in Harlem, gave him 27,900 of the 32,418 votes cast, compared to 4,091 for his Republican Party challenger, Mrs. Lucille Pickett Williams, and only 427 for Reverend Ervin Yearling of the Conservative Party of New York.[50] Still facing contempt of court charges, Powell would remain on the island of Bimini in the Bahamas for the rest of his term without taking his seat. After winning re-election again in 1968, he would take his seat in the House of Representatives in January, 1969, but would fail to win the 1970 election.[51]
  • Oil from the sunken American supertanker Torrey Canyon washed ashore on the beaches of France for the first time, along a 30-mile stretch of the shores of Brittany.[52] Governors of coastal provinces were given authority by the national government to implement the ORSEC plan (Organisation de la Réponse de curité Civile) to combat the disaster.[53]
  • Died: Sir Donald Sangster, 55, the second Prime Minister of Jamaica, died less than two months after taking office. Sangster had been sworn in on February 23 and had been stricken by a cerebral hemorrhage three weeks later, on March 16, while working on the national budget.[54] Flown to Montreal on March 21, Sangster had gone into a coma on April 1 and never awoke. Later in the day, Hugh Shearer was selected as the new leader of the Jamaican Labour Party and was sworn into office as the new Prime Minister. Shearer would serve until March 2, 1972.[55]

April 12, 1967 (Wednesday)

Ahmanson Theatre
Mark Taper Forum

April 13, 1967 (Thursday)

  • Conservatives won the Greater London Council elections.[59]
  • Tom Seaver, one of the great pitchers in Major League Baseball and a future Hall of Famer, made his major league debut in a 3-2 win for the New York Mets over the Pittsburgh Pirates, and would go on to become the first starting pitcher in Mets' history to finish with a winning record, and would be the National League Rookie of the Year. Seaver had debuted with the minor league Jacksonville Suns the previous year.[60][61]
  • Gary L. Scott, a science teacher at the high school in Jacksboro, Tennessee, lost his job for violating a law prohibiting the teaching of evolution. Scott was dismissed by decision of the Campbell County Board of Education one day after the Tennessee House of Representatives had voted, 58-27, to repeal the Butler Act of 1925. The action, which revived memories of the famous "Scopes Monkey Trial", would lead to the successful repeal of §498-1922 of the Tennessee Code on May 17.[62]
  • Casino Royale, a comedy intended as a spoof of the first James Bond novel by Ian Fleming, had its world premiere in London, with David Niven portraying Bond. The film would then make its American debut in New York on April 28. One critic noted that "reviewers were generally unkind".[63]
  • Died: Luis Somoza Debayle, 44, President of Nicaragua from 1956 to 1963, died of a massive heart attack.

April 14, 1967 (Friday)

Fock
Kallai

April 15, 1967 (Saturday)

  • A group of 20 U.S. servicemen marched at the forefront of a parade from New York's Central Park to the United Nations Plaza, behind a banner "Vietnam Veterans Against the War" as part of at least 100,000 protesters in a demonstration organized by the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, marking a new development in which American vets would join the anti-war movement.[65] Six of the veterans would form an organization of the same name after the march.[66] What was described as "the largest peace demonstration in decades" [67] in Manhattan lasted for four hours. Later in the day, a group called Veterans for Peace in Viet-Nam would be among 60,000 protesting the war at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco.[68][69][70]
  • When the New York marchers reached Sheep Meadow in Central Park, a group of protesters set fire to an American flag, and the Associated Press photograph ran in newspapers across the U.S.,[71] prompting the Congress to pass the first federal prohibition against flag burning.[72]
  • Forty-one South Vietnamese soldiers were killed and 50 seriously wounded in the Binh Dinh Province when two U.S. Air Force jets bombed them by mistake.[73]
  • Elections for the Chamber of Deputies were held in the Kingdom of Jordan, with voters having a choice of 137 independent candidates for the 60 available seats. Political affiliations were banned, and women were not allowed to vote [74] and nearly half of the winners (28 of 60) were newcomers,[75] including Prime Minister Saad Jumaa.
  • Scotland defeated England 3-2 at Wembley Stadium, with goals from Law, Lennox and McCalligog, in the British Championships. The defeat marked England's first loss since they won the World Cup, and ended a 19-game unbeaten streak.[76]
  • Born:
  • Died: Totò (Antonio De Curtis), 69, Italian comedian and actor

April 16, 1967 (Sunday)

National Professional Soccer League 1967 logo.gif
  • The National Professional Soccer League (NPSL), the first coast-to-coast soccer league in the United States, held its opening day with five games, starting with a 2:00 pm game at Baltimore that was televised nationally by CBS. League Commissioner Ken Macker kicked out the first ball prior to the contest, and was accompanied by his guest, NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle.[77] The Baltimore Bays won, 1-0, over the Atlanta Chiefs in front of 8,434 fans. In Philadelphia, more people (14,163) turned out to see the Philadelphia Spartans (who beat the Toronto Falcons, 2-0) than baseball's Philadelphia Phillies (9,213).[78] The rival United Soccer Association would debut a month later, on May 26
  • Professor Ryokichi Minobe of the Tokyo Education University, backed by Japan's Socialist and Communist parties, won an election to become the Governor of the Tokyo metropolitan area and its 11,000,000 people.[79]
  • Aretha Franklin's signature song, "Respect", was released by Atlantic Records and would reach #1 by June. Although Otis Redding had written and recorded the song in 1965, Franklin added the chorus "R-E-S-P-E-C-T, find out what it means to me".[80]

April 17, 1967 (Monday)

Joey Bishop (center) with Regis Philbin (left)

April 18, 1967 (Tuesday)

  • At a presentation to the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Dr. Walter Bortz II of Philadelphia's Lankenau Medical Center, and Dr. Willard A. Krehl of the University of Iowa and Dr. W. M. Bortz presented the first objective data that Americans were getting dangerously high amounts of salt in their diets. Dr. Bortz said that most Americans were consuming more than 100 times as much salt as they needed. Dr. Krehl said that the average amount added to foods prior to sale and from the salt shaker at mealtime equated to two spoonfuls per day.[90]
  • Through the Vatican's official newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, Pope Paul VI clarified that his March 28 encyclical Populorum progressio should not be misinterpreted as a change in the Roman Catholic Church's position against artificial birth control, despite earlier press reports. The only Church-approved contraceptive measure was abstinence.[91]
  • Born: Maria Bello, American film and TV actress, in Norristown, Pennsylvania
  • Died:
    • Friedrich Heiler, 75, German theologian and historian
    • Norwood Hanson, 42, American scientific philosopher and author of Patterns of Discovery, was killed when his private plane crashed while he was flying home.

April 19, 1967 (Wednesday)

  • The American Surveyor 3 probe landed on the Moon at 7:04 p.m. Florida time (0004 April 20 UTC).[92] After bouncing three times during the landing on the Oceanus Procellarum, the probe became was the first to analyze the chemical composition of the lunar surface. Using a robotic scoop called the Soil Mechanics Surface Sampler, the probe dug four different trenches and sent data back to Earth, revealing that the Moon soil was "like coarse damp beach sand, being cohesive and clumpy." [93] On May 3, the Surveyor probe would power down as it entered a two-week long "night cycle", when temperatures on the darkened surface fell to -250 °F; after the cycle's end, however, engineers on Earth would try in vain to locate Surveyor's transmitter frequency to reactivate the craft, which "apparently froze to death" and would be declared a loss upon entering its second night cycle on June 1.[94] The bouncing would later be traced to "unexpectedly high reflectivity" from rocks on the lunar surface "at a critical point in the touchdown"; nonetheless, the spacecraft "scored history's longest hole-in-one by hopping into a crater at the end of its quarter million mile flight." [95]
  • Kathy Switzer became the first woman to run in the Boston Marathon as a registrant, after listing herself simply as "K. V. Switzer" and being assigned the number 261.[96] Four miles into the 26-mile event, race official Jock Semple tried to pull Switzer out of the crowd of runners, and was shoved to the curb by Switzer's boyfriend, Thomas Miller. Photographs taken by Associated Press photographer Donald L. Robinson would appear in papers around the world the next day.[97][98] Switzer was not the first person to sneak into the all-male race, and had been preceded in 1966 by Roberta Gibb who jumped in from the crowd at the 26-mile event's start, but she was the first to apply for entry. Switzer would finish the race in 4 hours, 20 minutes, while Gibb, running again without registration, would cross the line after 3 hours, 27 minutes and 17 seconds. Dave McKenzie of New Zealand would win the race in a time of 2:15:45 [99]
  • Konrad Adenauer, the first Chancellor of the West Germany, died at the age of 91 at his home in Rhöndorf, near Bonn, a week after he had contracted influenza. Leaders from across the Western world made plans to attend his April 25 funeral.[100]
  • Died: William Boyle, 93, British Admiral

April 20, 1967 (Thursday)

April 21, 1967 (Friday)

Papadopoulos

April 22, 1967 (Saturday)

  • Walter Ulbricht was unanimously re-elected as leader of East Germany's Communist Party, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) in a vote by the party's Central Committee. Former British spy Klaus Fuchs, who provided American nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union, was named one of the new members of the 120-member Committee.[110]
  • American inspectors were allowed to make a second inspection of Israel's Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona, and concluded that although Israel was not developing atomic weapons, the Jewish state "was aiming to reach a point where it could have a nuclear option at a moment's notice"; seven weeks later, on May 28, the Israelis would assemble two nuclear bombs in preparation for war.[111]
  • Born:
  • Died: Tom Conway, 62, British film, radio and TV actor

April 23, 1967 (Sunday)

Ray
  • James Earl Ray, a 39-year old convict serving a 20-year sentence for armed robbery, escaped from the Missouri State Penitentiary in Jefferson City.[112] He would later tell interrogators that other inmates helped him conceal himself inside a four-foot by four-foot container that was used to deliver loaves of bread to prisons in the area, then helped load him onto a truck.[113] Forty-nine weeks later, on April 4, 1968, Ray would assassinate Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, and would finally be recaptured on June 10 of that year at Heathrow Airport in London.[114]
  • The Soviet Union announced the launch of Air Force Colonel Vladimir Komarov on "a powerful new carrier rocket" as Soyuz 1 was sent into orbit at 3:35 a.m. local time from Baikonur on what was to be a 72-hour mission. In a separate announcement, the Soviet news agency Tass suggested that it would soon send up a second spacecraft that would link to Soyuz 1, and that the pilots would trade places.[115][116] Soyuz 2 would have been launched the next day with Valery Bykovsky, Yevgeny Khrunov and Aleksei Yeliseyev, but Soyuz 1 began experiencing problems soon after launch.[117]
  • Born: Melina Kanakaredes, American actress, in Akron, Ohio
  • Died: Edgar Neville, 67, Spanish playwright and film director

April 24, 1967 (Monday)

  • Vladimir Komarov became the first Soviet cosmonaut to die, and the first person to be killed during a spaceflight, when the parachute of his space capsule Soyuz 1 failed during re-entry. The capsule crashed at 8:24 a.m. local time, 40 miles (64 km) east of the city of Orsk, and rescuers found that "the base of the spacecraft had been completely burned through" and that Komarov's remains had been burned into a "blackened lump measuring 30 x 80 cm".[118] His launch the day before had been complicated by a drain of battery power caused by the failure of a solar panel to deploy, and he had made 18 orbits at a lower altitude than planned.[119] On his last three circuits of the Earth, as the orbit was decaying due to friction, he was having difficulty controlling the vehicle before he made his emergency re-entry.[120][117] In the investigation that followed, it was found that the parachute design for the Soyuz capsules had been faulty and that the manufacture and testing had been poor, resulting in "the chilling conclusion that had Soyuz 2 been launched, that crew would also have perished on its return." [121]
  • The Philadelphia 76ers defeated the San Francisco Warriors, 125-122, in game six of the NBA Championship series, to win the title. Playing at home, San Francisco had a 12-point lead in the third quarter. In the final 15 seconds, when Philadelphia had a 123-122 lead, the Warriors' Rick Barry (who made 44 points in the game) missed a shot that would have put his team ahead.[122]
  • Died:

April 25, 1967 (Tuesday)

  • John A. Love, the Republican Governor of Colorado, signed a bill "giving Colorado the nation's most liberal abortion law. Under the law's terms, if a three member board in an accredited hospital agreed unanimously that a pregnancy met one of four specified conditions (death or serious impairment to the mother, the likelihood of a child being born with a "grave and permanent physical deformity or mental retardation", a pregnancy of less than 16 weeks arising from forcible rape or incest, or a girl under the age of 16 made pregnant by rape or incest).[123] Previously, Colorado and other states in the U.S. allowed abortion of a pregnancy only in cases of "a severe threat to the physical health of the mother" or "pregnancies resulting from forcible rape"; Love said that letters and telegrams were "about 2,600 against and about 2,400 for the bill".[124] On May 17, the state director of health and hospitals announced that a 12-year old rape victim would be given the first legalized abortion in the United States.[125] The reform of the law too place in the wake of an increase of babies born with birth defects; North Carolina and California would make similar changes in their laws later in the year, and Georgia and Maryland would follow in 1968.[126]
  • The U.S. Senate voted unanimously (88 to 0) to ratify the 79-nation Outer Space Treaty prohibiting weapons in outer space.[127]
  • The colony of Swaziland was made a protectorate by the United Kingdom, with internal self-government. The Ngwenyama (Paramount Chief) of the Swazi people, Sobhuza II, was recognized as King and head of the government. Full independence would be granted on September 6, 1968.[128]
  • Twenty-seven people in Kiev were killed when the bus they were on sank into the Dnieper River in the Ukrainian SSR. In a departure from the existing Soviet policy to not publicize accidents, the newspaper for the Ukrainian SSR Communist Party reported the accident nine days later. Government investigators concluded that the driver had "violated traffic rules by passing a truck, causing the bus to become accidentally hitched to a streetcar bumper", then swerved out of control and crashed through a guard rail. Only five people were rescued from the river. [129]
  • Died:

April 26, 1967 (Wednesday)

  • For the first time, a satellite was launched into orbit from an ocean platform. San Marco B, the second satellite in Italy's space program (and the first to be sent up from Kenya) soared into space under the direction of an all-Italian team of 100 scientists. From a converted oil drilling rig in the Indian Ocean, a few miles off of the coast of Malindi, an American Scout B rocket carried the 285-pound research satellite into an equatorial orbit. The satellite's purpose was to gather "data on air density and ionospheric conditions above the earth's equator.".[130] It would re-enter the atmosphere on October 14 after 171 days in orbit.[131]
  • Born:
Lt. Commander Estocin
  • Died: U.S. Navy Lieutenant Commander Michael J. Estocin, 35, was shot down over North Vietnam while leading his second airstrike in six days from the USS Ticonderoga. With a mission to destroy North Vietnamese thermal power plants at Haiphong and the surface-to-air missile sites defending the plants. On his first mission, Estocin took out three of the missile sites before his A-4 Skyhawk plane was damaged by an SA-2 Guideline missile. Despite the damage, he took out another missile site before gliding back to the Ticonderoga. On his final mission, Estocin's A-4 was struck by another missile and he fired his own missiles before plunging to the ground. Estocin would be promoted posthumously to the rank of Captain, and would be awarded the Medal of Honor in 1978 for "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 20 and 26 April 1967".[132]

April 27, 1967 (Thursday)

Expopass.jpg
  • Construction of Moscow's Ostankino Tower, at 540 metres (1,770 ft) the tallest free-standing structure in the world up to that time, was completed with the placement of the last antenna on the television transmitter.[133]
  • Expo 67, described as "the largest, costliest, gaudiest world's fair in history" [134] was dedicated in Montreal as a World's Fair to coincide with the celebration of the centennial of the 1867 founding of the Canadian Confederation. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson ignited the Expo Flame in the Place des Nations to inaugurate "The Universal and International Exhibition of 1967", which would run until October 27.
  • Born: Willem-Alexander, King of the Netherlands since 2013. He was the first boy to be born in the Netherlands royal family since 1851, and was the great-grandson of former Queen Wilhelmina (who reigned 1890 to 1948), the grandson of reigning Queen Juliana (1948 to 1980), and son of future Queen Beatrix (1980 to 2013).[135]
  • Died: William Douglas Cook, 82, founder of Eastwoodhill Arboretum and the garden at Pukeiti, New Zealand

April 28, 1967 (Friday)

  • World heavyweight boxing champion Muhammad Ali refused to take the oath of induction into the United States Army after reporting as scheduled to an induction center in Houston, Texas. Ali stood in line with 11 other inductees, underwent a physical examination, blood tests and x-rays, but refused to step forward when his name was called by Army Lt. Steven Dunkley. He then told Navy Lt. C. P. Hartman that he understood the penalties, and said that his refusal was based on his religious beliefs. Ali was stripped of his boxing title on the same day by the World Boxing Association, and would not be allowed to fight for the title again until 1970.[136][137] On June 20, Ali would be convicted of draft evasion, fined $10,000 and sentenced to five years in prison, but the conviction would be overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court on June 28, 1967.[138]
  • U.S. Army Corporal Dennis Brown returned to his home in Hinckley, Ohio, five days after his parents had mistakenly been told that he had been killed in action in Vietnam. Corporal Hinckley took his girlfriend to a high school senior prom, then returned to duty at the end of May.[139][140][141]
  • U.S. Army General William C. Westmoreland, commander of U.S. forces in the Vietnam War, spoke to a joint session of the U.S. Congress in hopes of raising a budget for additional servicemen beyond the 470,000 who were already in South Vietnam. As an author would note later, "Never before had a military commander addressed Congress while he was directing an ongoing war." Westmoreland told Congress that he would need a minimum of 80,500 more troops, and hoped that he could have 200,000 more men at his disposal.[142]
  • Expo 67 opened to the public, with over 310,000 people attending on the first day.[143] The very first visitor, as noted by Expo officials, was an American, Al Carter of Chicago. Carter, a jazz drummer, had been waiting at the main gate since 10:00 the previous morning.[144]
  • Aircraft manufacturers McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft Company merged to form McDonnell Douglas.[145] The company would be bought out by Boeing three decades later.[146]

April 29, 1967 (Saturday)

  • Voters in the northeastern portion of New South Wales rejected a proposal to make the New England the eighth state of Australia. The final result of the referendum on the New England New State Movement was 155,544 "yes" votes and 184,823 "no" votes.[147] Boundaries of the proposed new state stretched northwest from Newcastle to Walgett and included Muswellbrook and Gunnedah. If the measure had passed, a "yes" vote would have been required in a referendum of voters in New South Wales, and if that had succeeded, the Commonwealth would still have had to vote on approving the division.[148][149]
  • U.S. President Lyndon Johnson announced that he would ask Congress for $198 million toward finance the development of the 1.14 billion dollar SST, the proposed supersonic transport airplane that would be capable of flying at 1,800 mph and carrying 300 passengers.[150]
  • Fidel Castro announced that all intellectual property belonged to the world's people and that Cuba intended to translate and publish technical literature without compensation. "We proclaim publicly that we consider all intellectual products patrimony to which all humanity has a right," Castro said in a televised speech.[151]
  • Izvestia became the first daily newspaper in the Soviet Union to publish a comic strip. "Ivan Ivanich", which appeared on Saturdays, was described in a UPI dispatch as "a pipe-puffing engineer with a Dagwood haircut" who "uses heavyhanded humor to point up shortcomings in Soviet services".[152][153]
  • Born:
  • Died:
    • Claude R. Wickard, 74, former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture (1940 to 1945), was killed in an auto accident near Delphi, Indiana, after he turned his car into the path of an oncoming truck.[154]
    • Anthony Mann, 60, American film actor and director, died in West Berlin while directing some location shots for his final film, A Dandy in Aspic.[155]
    • J. B. Lenoir, 38, African-American blues musician, from a heart attack three weeks after injuring his chest in an automobile accident.

April 30, 1967 (Sunday)

  • Under federal law, daylight saving time went into effect on the throughout the United States for the first time, with the 1966 Uniform Time Act mandating that clocks be set ahead one hour at 2:00 in the morning on the last Sunday in April and then turned back one hour on the last Sunday in October. However, the law provided that any state could seek exemption from compliance by the United States Department of Transportation, and five of the 50 states chose to effectively change time zones rather than to change their clocks. The legislatures of Michigan and Hawaii voted to be exempt, and Alaska applied for a delay so that it could delineate its time zones.[156] In Indiana and Kentucky, which shifted from the Eastern to Central time zones, the matter was complicated further because local governments were allowed the option to move their clocks forward if they chose, such as Dearborn County, Indiana [157] or Muhlenberg County, Kentucky.[158]
  • The British cabinet voted, 13 to 8, to seek the admission of the United Kingdom into the European Economic Community, referred to at the time as the "Common Market". Prime Minister Harold Wilson would announce his plans on May 2 and the House of Commons would approve the resolution, 488 to 62.[159]
  • U.S. Senator and former presidential candidate Barry Goldwater retired from military service with the rank of Major General in the United States Air Force Reserve.[160]
  • Born: Philipp Kirkorov, Bulgarian-born Russian pop singer; in Varna

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  2. ^ "Men-on-Moon Hoax Fools Swiss", Chicago Tribune, April 2, 1967, p18
  3. ^ "Premier of France Quits in Tactical Bid", Chicago Tribune, April 2, 1967, p10
  4. ^ General Bruce Palmer, Jr., The 25-Year War: America's Military Role in Vietnam (University Press of Kentucky, 2014) p59
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  6. ^ "Hold Village Elections in S. Viet Today", Chicago Tribune, April 2, 1967, p10
  7. ^ "U.N. Mission Ends Aden Visit; Lack of British Help Charged", Minneapolis Star, April 7, 1967, p2B
  8. ^ "Angry UN mission flies out of Aden", The Age (Melbourne), April 8, 1967, p1
  9. ^ "Postal Boss Urges Office Be Abolished", Chicago Tribune, April 4, 1967, p1
  10. ^ "Tonga" in The Statesman's Year-Book 1967-68: The One-Volume Encyclopaedia of All Nations (Springer, 1967) p184
  11. ^ "Spain Passes Stiff Laws Against Press", Chicago Tribune, April 5, 1967, p1A-6
  12. ^ "U.S. 'Purveyor of Violence,' King Asserts", Chicago Tribune, April 5, 1967, p1A-8
  13. ^ Manning Marable, Race, Reform, and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1990 (University Press of Mississippi, 1984) p102
  14. ^ Charles Schulz. "Peanuts Comic Strip, April 4, 1967 on GoComics.com". GoComics. 
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  16. ^ "Carson Quits TV Show Over Reruns", Chicago Tribune, April 5, 1967, p1
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  20. ^ "Humour as a Guerrilla Tactic: The West German Student Movement's Mockery of the Establishment", by Simon Teune, in Humour and Social Protest (Cambridge University Press, 2007) pp121-122
  21. ^ "SURVIVOR ACCUSES SPECK", Chicago Tribune, April 6, 1967, p1
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  41. ^ "Tentative Settlement of AFTRA Strike Reached", Minneapolis Star, April 10, 1967, p1
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  43. ^ "Liz Taylor, Scofield Win Film Oscars", Chicago Tribune, April 11, 1967, p1
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  47. ^ "B-52s in First Viet Raids from Thailand Bases", Chicago Tribune, April 12, 1967, p7
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  49. ^ "'Chet' Minus David In Defy of Strike", Bridgeport (CT) Post, March 30, 1967, p1
  50. ^ "Harlem Again Picks Powell", Chicago Tribune, April 12, 1967, p1
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  56. ^ "Music Center Founders Lauded at Ahmanson Theater Opening", Los Angeles Times, April 13, 1967, p2-1
  57. ^ Taik-Young Hamm, Arming the Two Koreas: State, Capital and Military Power (Routledge, 2012) p77
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  59. ^ "Tories Oust Labor from London Rule", Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1967, p1
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  61. ^ "Pirates Find Mets Tough Roadblock, 3-2", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 14, 1967, p26
  62. ^ "'Monkey Law' Leads to Firing of Teacher", Chicago Tribune, April 15, 1967, p9
  63. ^ Jon Burlingame, The Music of James Bond (Oxford University Press, 2012)
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  65. ^ Andrew E. Hunt, The Turning: A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War (New York University Press, 1999) p5
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  69. ^ "War Protest Draws 125,000 in New York, 60,000 on West Coast", Baltimore Sun, April 16, 1967, p1
  70. ^ "Largest U.S. Crowds In History Protest War", Greenville (SC) News, April 16, 1967, p1
  71. ^ , "Old Glory up in Flames", AP photo in Great Falls (MT) Tribune, April 16, 1967, p1
  72. ^ "Desecration of the American Flag", by David T. Prosser, in The Constitution and the Flag: The flag salute cases (Taylor & Francis, 1993) p19
  73. ^ "U.S. Jets Miss Target; Bombs Kill 41 S. Viet Troops; 50 Hurt", Chicago Tribune, April 15, 1967, p6
  74. ^ "Jordan Voting Brisk Despite Boycott Appeal", Chicago Tribune, April 16, 1967, p1A-11
  75. ^ "32 Regain Seats in Jordan Election", The Philadelphia Inquirer, April 17, 1967, p2
  76. ^ "Scotland End England's Run of 19 Games without Defeat", Glasgow Herald, April 17, 1967, p4
  77. ^ Dennis J. Seese, The Rebirth of Professional Soccer in America: The Strange Days of the United Soccer Association (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015) p97
  78. ^ "Pro Soccer League Makes Debut In Five Cities", AP report in Las Cruces (NM) Sun-News", April 17, 1967, p9
  79. ^ "Leftist Wins Rule in Tokyo— Premier Sato's Party Loses Control of City", Chicago Tribune, April 17, 1967, p1
  80. ^ Jim McAvoy, Black Americans of Achievement: Aretha Franklin (Infobase Publishing, 2002) p40
  81. ^ Belachew Gebrewold, Anatomy of Violence: Understanding the Systems of Conflict and Violence in Africa (Routledge, 2016) p96
  82. ^ "U.S. Launches 3d Moon Probe Vehicle", Chicago Tribune, April 17, 1967, p12
  83. ^ "Surveyor 3 Soars Thru Space", Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1967, p2-9
  84. ^ "Tonight's TV Highlights", Sheboygan (WI) Press, April 17, 1967, p26
  85. ^ "10 New CBS Shows; Kill Off Gunsmoke", '"Chicago Tribune, February 23, 1967, p2-14
  86. ^ "Once-Canceled 'Gunsmoke' Reinstated in Fall Schedule", Oshkosh (WI) Northwestern, March 8, 1967, p40
  87. ^ "Italy's Benvenuti Defeats Griffith, Captures Crown", Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1967, p3-1
  88. ^ "Griffith, Emile", in Historical Dictionary of Boxing, by John Grasso (Scarecrow Press, 2013) p182
  89. ^ Robin Luckham, The Nigerian Military a Sociological Analysis of Authority & Revolt 1960-1967 (Cambridge University Press Archive, 1971) p146
  90. ^ "Salt Called Health Peril— Overuse Blamed for Vascular Ills", Chicago Tribune, April 19, 1967, p1
  91. ^ "Birth Control Rules Unchanged, Catholics Told, The Courier-Journal (Louisville KY), April 19, 1967, p6
  92. ^ "U.S. Lands Digger Tool on Moon", Chicago Tribune, April 20, 1967, p1
  93. ^ Robert Reeves, The Superpower Space Race: An Explosive Rivalry through the Solar System (Springer, 2013) p123-124
  94. ^ "Icy Moon Causes Silence", Chicago Tribune, June 2, 1967, p3
  95. ^ "Surveyor 3's Moon Bounce Laid to Radar", Chicago Tribune, July 10, 1967, p10
  96. ^ Dorothy E. McBride and Janine A. Parry, Women's Rights in the USA: Policy Debates and Gender Roles (Routledge, 2016) p2
  97. ^ "Woman Chaser Banned In Boston", Kingsport (TN) Times, April 20, 1967, p1
  98. ^ "Lassie Gives Laddies Race of Life Time", Chicago Tribune, April 20, 1967, p1
  99. ^ "New Zealand Ace Cops Title", Salt Lake (UT) Tribune, April 20, 1967, p10B
  100. ^ "Adenauer Dies; LBJ Will Fly to Funeral", Chicago Tribune, April 19, 1967, p1
  101. ^ "124 PERISH IN PLANE CRASH— Swiss Liner Hits Cyprus Hill; 4 Live", Chicago Tribune, April 21, 1967, p1
  102. ^ "Aviation accidents". Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  103. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  104. ^ Christos Kassimeris, Greece and the American Embrace: Greek Foreign Policy Towards Turkey, the US and the Western Alliance (I.B.Tauris, 2009) p62
  105. ^ Richard Clogg, A Short History of Modern Greece (Cambridge University Press, 1979) p186
  106. ^ "Army Grabs Control in Crisis-Torn Greece", Chicago Tribune, April 22, 1967, p1
  107. ^ "Greece to Keep Ties to West— New Government Sworn in After Army Coup", Chicago Tribune, April 22, 1967, p8
  108. ^ Joseph S. D'Aleo, with Pamela G. Grube, The Oryx Resource Guide to El Niño and La Niña (Greenwood Publishing, 2002) p44
  109. ^ "47 DIE, HUNDREDS HURT AS TORNADOES RIP AREA, Chicago Tribune, April 22, 1967, p1
  110. ^ "East German Reds Reelect Ulbricht Boss", Chicago Tribune, April 23, 1967, p6
  111. ^ Or Rabinowitz, Bargaining on Nuclear Tests: Washington and Its Cold War Deals (Oxford University Press, 2014) pp83-84
  112. ^ "Convict Sought After His Third Effort to Escape", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 24, 1967, p3
  113. ^ Select Committee on Assassinations, U.S. House of Representatives, Compilation of the Statements of James Earl Ray (University Press of the Pacific, 1978) pp3-4
  114. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination", by Carol E. Dietrich, in Race and Racism in the United States: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic (ABC-CLIO, 2014) p755
  115. ^ "Russia Orbits Spaceship and Veteran Pilot", Chicago Tribune, April 23, 1967, p16
  116. ^ "'Space Bus' Pilot Orbited by Soviet", Cincinnati Enquirer, April 23, 1967, p1
  117. ^ a b Hamish Lindsay, Tracking Apollo to the Moon (Springer, 2013)
  118. ^ Rex Hall and David Shayler, Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft (Springer, 2003) pp135-136
  119. ^ The Great Space Race: How the U.S. Beat the Russians to the Moon (Time-Life Books, 2016)
  120. ^ "Cosmonaut's Battle for Life in Orbit Told", Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1967, p1
  121. ^ Brian Harvey, Russia in Space: The Failed Frontier? (Springer, 2000) p9
  122. ^ "76ers Take N.B.A. Crown", Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1967, p3-1
  123. ^ "Liberal Abortion Bill Is Signed in Colorado", Chicago Tribune, April 26, 1967, p1
  124. ^ "Governor Signs Liberalized Abortion Law", Colorado Springs (CO) Gazette-Telegraph, April 26, 1967, p1
  125. ^ "Colorado OK's Abortion for Rape Victim, 12", Chicago Tribune, May 18, 1967, p1
  126. ^ Fred Rosner, Biomedical Ethics and Jewish Law (KTAV Publishing House, 2001) p175
  127. ^ "U.S. Ratifies Space Peace Pact", Chicago Tribune, April 26, 1967, p14
  128. ^ "Swaziland", in The Statesman's Year-Book 1987-88: The One-Volume Encyclopaedia of All Nations, John Paxton, ed. (Springer, 1987) p1133
  129. ^ "27 Persons Die In Bus Plunge", AP report in Shreveport (LA) Times, May 4, 1967, p7
  130. ^ "Italy Sea Satellite Up", Honolulu Advertiser, April 27, 1967, pA-8
  131. ^ Michelangelo De Maria and Lucia Orlando, Italy in Space: In Search of a Strategy, 1957-1975 (Editions Beauchesne, 2008) p98
  132. ^ Jim Winchester, Douglas A-4 Skyhawk: Attack & Close-Support Fighter Bomber (Pen and Sword, 2004) p115-116
  133. ^ "Ostankino Tower Complete", Trud, April 28, 1967, p3, quoted in Foreign Press Digest: Soviet Union, 1967, p86
  134. ^ "Canada's Expo Will Open to Public Today", Chicago Tribune, April 28, 1967, p1
  135. ^ "Beatrix Gives Birth to Future Dutch King", Chicago Tribune, April 28, 1967, p1
  136. ^ "Clay Dodges Draft; Stripped of Title", Chicago Tribune, April 29, 1967, p2
  137. ^ "Cassius 'Muhammad Ali' Clay rejects oath, faces jail term", Redlands (CA) Daily Facts, April 29, 1967, p1
  138. ^ James E. Westheider, The Vietnam War (Greenwood Publishing, 2007) pp41-42
  139. ^ "Hinckley Youth Dies In Vietnam— Dennis Brown Killed in Action", Medina County (OH) Star, April 24, 1967, p1
  140. ^ "Hinckley Family's Son Is Alive After All", Akron (OH) Beacon Journal, April 25, 1967, p1
  141. ^ "Not 'Dead', Vet Gets Home in Time for Prom", Chicago Tribune, April 29, 1967, p2
  142. ^ Edward F. Murphy, Vietnam Medal of Honor Heroes (Random House, 2010)
  143. ^ "Late Crowds Jam Expo 67 on First Night", Chicago Tribune, April 29, 1967, p1B-6
  144. ^ "Jazz Musician First Expo Patron", Ottawa Journal, April 28, 1967, p1
  145. ^ "McDonnell-Douglas Merger Gets Go Ahead", AP report in Sedalia (MO) Democrat, April 27, 1967, p2
  146. ^ Guy Norris and Mark Wagner, Douglas Jetliners (MBI Publishing, 1999) p36
  147. ^ "'NO' VOTE WINS NEW STATE POLL— The New State Movement in Northern New South Wales has failed", Sydney Morning Herald, April 30, 1967, p1
  148. ^ "Vote Today on New State Issue", Sydney Morning Herald, April 29, 1967, p1
  149. ^ Paul Davey, The Nationals: The Progressive, Country, and National Party in New South Wales 1919-2006 (Federation Press, 2006) p199
  150. ^ "Lyndon OK's Super Jet Transport", Chicago Tribune, April 30, 1967, p1
  151. ^ "Will Pirate World Books, Castro Says", Chicago Tribune, May 1, 1967, p7
  152. ^ "Comic Strip Being Run By Izvestia", The Times (Shreveport LA), April 30, 1967, p15-C
  153. ^ "Izvestia Now Prints a Weekly Comic Strip", Chicago Tribune, April 30, 1967, p3
  154. ^ "Claude Wickard Dies In Road Crash— Collision Fatal To Ex-Secretary of Agriculture", Indianapolis Star, April 30, 1967, p1
  155. ^ William Darby, Anthony Mann: The Film Career (McFarland, 2009) p5
  156. ^ "State's Clocks Out of Step", Detroit Free Press, April 30, 1967, p2
  157. ^ "Most Clocks In State To Stay As They Are", Indianapolis Star, April 29, 1967, p1
  158. ^ "Daylight Time Goes Into Effect", The Courier-Journal (Louisville KY), April 30, 1967, pB-6
  159. ^ David Gowland and Arthur Turner, Reluctant Europeans: Britain and European Integration 1945-1998 (Routledge, 2014) p166
  160. ^ "Barry Retires as General in Air Reserves", Chicago Tribune, May 1, 1967, p8
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