Antonov

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Antonov State Company
Native name
Державне підприємство "Антонов"
State-owned company
Industry Aerospace and defence
Founded 31 May 1946; 71 years ago (1946-05-31)
Headquarters Kiev, Ukraine
Key people
  • Oleg Antonov, first chief/prominent designer
  • Dmytro Kiva, chief
Products
  • Aircraft for various applications
  • Aircraft maintenance
  • Cargo air transport
Number of employees
13,700 (2014)
Parent Ukroboronprom
Divisions
Website www.antonov.com

Antonov State Company (Ukrainian: Державне підприємство "Антонов"), formerly the Antonov Aeronautical Scientific-Technical Complex (Antonov ASTC) (Ukrainian: Авіаційний науково-технічний комплекс імені Антонова, АНТК ім. Антонова), and earlier the Antonov Design Bureau, was a Soviet, and later a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company. Antonov's particular expertise was in the fields of very large aeroplanes and aeroplanes using unprepared runways. Antonov (model prefix An-) has built a total of approximately 22,000 aircraft, and thousands of its planes are currently operating in the former Soviet Union and in developing countries.[1]

Antonov StC is a state-owned commercial company. Its headquarters and main industrial grounds were originally located in Novosibirsk, and were later transferred to Kiev.[2] On 12 May 2015 it was transferred from the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade to the Ukroboronprom (Ukrainian Defense Industry).[3]

In June 2016, Ukraine's major state-owned arms manufacturer Ukroboronprom announced the creation of the Ukrainian Aircraft Corporation within its structure, to combine all aircraft manufacturing enterprises in Ukraine.

History

Soviet era

Antonov An-2, mass-produced Soviet utility aeroplane.

Foundation and relocation

The company was established in 1946 at the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association as the top-secret Soviet Research and Design Bureau No. 153. It was headed by Oleg Antonov and specialised in turboprop military transport aircraft. The An-2 biplane was a major achievement of this period, with hundreds of these aircraft still operating as of 2013.[4] In 1952, the Bureau was relocated to Kiev, a city with a rich aviation history and an aircraft-manufacturing infrastructure restored after the destruction caused by World War II.

First serial aircraft and expansion

An-12, Cold War-era tactical transport, in flight.
47-year-old An-12 still in operational condition in 2011.

The 1957 introduction of the An-10/An-12 family of mid-range turboprop aeroplanes began the successful production of thousands of these aircraft. Their use for both heavy combat and civilian purposes around the globe continues to the present; the An-10/An-12 were used most notably in the Vietnam War, the Soviet war in Afghanistan and the Chernobyl disaster relief megaoperation.

In 1959, the bureau began construction of the separate Flight Testing and Improvement Base in suburban Hostomel (now the Antonov Airport).

In 1965, the Antonov An-22 heavy military transport entered serial production to supplement the An-12 in major military and humanitarian airlifts by the Soviet Union. The model became the first Soviet wide-body aircraft, and it remains the world's largest turboprop-powered aircraft. Antonov designed and presented a nuclear-powered version of the An-22. It was never flight tested.

In 1966, after the major expansion in the Sviatoshyn neighbourhood of the city, the company was renamed to another disguise name: "Kiev Mechanical Plant". Two independent aircraft production and repair facilities, under engineering-supervision of the Antonov Bureau, also appeared in Kiev during this period.

Prominence and Antonov's retirement

Antonov An-24, the Soviet Union's most common regional airliner.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, the company established itself as USSR's main designer of military transport aircraft with dozens of new modifications in development and production. After Oleg Antonov's death in 1984, the company was officially renamed as the Research and Design Bureau named after O.K. Antonov (Russian: Опытно-конструкторское бюро имени О.К. Антонова) while continuing the use of "Kiev Mechanical Plant" alias for some purposes.

Late Soviet-era: superlarge projects and first commercialisation

An-225 is the largest operating aircraft in the world.

In the late 1980s, the Antonov Bureau achieved global prominence after the introduction of its extra large aeroplanes. The An-124 "Ruslan" (1982) became the Soviet Union's mass-produced strategic airlifter under the leadership of Chief Designer Viktor Tolmachev.[citation needed] The Bureau enlarged the "Ruslan" design even more for the Soviet space shuttle programme logistics, creating the An-225 "Mriya" in 1989. "Mriya" is still the world's largest and heaviest aeroplane.

The end of the Cold War and perestroika allowed the Antonov company's first step to commercialisation and foreign expansion. In 1989, the Antonov Airlines subsidiary was created for its own aircraft maintenance and cargo projects.

Independent Ukraine

Antonov Design Bureau remained a state-owned company after Ukraine achieved its independence in 1991 and is since regarded as a strategic national asset.

Expansion to free market

Rollout of the first serially-produced An-148 at Antonov's hangar in Kiev, 2009. An An-124 under maintenance seen in the far corner of the hangar.

Since independence, Antonov has certified and marketed both Soviet-era and newly developed models for sale in new markets outside of the former soviet-sphere of influence. New models introduced to serial production and delivered to customers include the Antonov An-140, Antonov An-148 and Antonov An-158 regional airliners.

Among several modernisation projects, Antonov received orders for upgrading "hundreds" of its legendary An-2 utility planes still in operation in Azerbaijan, Cuba and Russia to the An-2-100 upgrade version.[4]

In 2014, following the annexation of the Crimea by Russia, Ukraine cancelled contracts with Russia, leading to an 80% income reduction in Ukraine’s defence and aviation industries.[5]

Production facilities' consolidation

During the Soviet period, not all Antonov-designed aircraft were manufactured by the company itself. This was a result of Soviet industrial strategy that split military production between different regions of the USSR to minimise potential war loss risks. As a result, Antonov aeroplanes are often assembled by the specialist contract manufacturers.

In 2009, the once-independent "Aviant" aeroplane-assembling plant in Kiev became part of the Antonov State Company, facilitating a full serial manufacturing cycle of the company. However, the old tradition of co-manufacturing with contractors is continued, both with Soviet-time partners and with new licensees like Iran's HESA.[6]

In 2014, the Antonov State Company produced and delivered only 2 An-158 airplanes.[7] This trend continued onto 2015, producing one An-148 and one An-158.[8] In 2016, no aircraft were produced or delivered to clients, though the company has plans to start up production in 2017.[8]

Antonov/Taqnia An-132 roll out ceremony in Kiev, 20 December 2016

In June 2016, Ukraine's major state-owned arms manufacturer Ukroboronprom announced the creation of the Ukrainian Aircraft Corporation within its structure, thereby combining all aircraft manufacturing enterprises, including the assets of Antonov State Company into a single cluster, according to Ukroboronprom's press service.[9]

On 19 July 2017, the Ukrainian government approved the liquidation of Antonov's assets,[10][11][12] starting with closing down three factories in Kiev and Kharkiv[citation needed]. The State Concern "Antonov" (a business group, created in 2005 from the merger of several legally independent companies into a single economic entity under unified management) will be liquidated as a residual corporate entity. Antonov State Company, Kharkiv State Aviation Manufacturing Enterprise and Plant №410 of Civil Aviation were transferred under the management of another state-owned concern Ukroboronprom in 2015. Antonov State Company continues to function as an enterprise.[13]

Products and activities

LT-10 tram
Kiev-12 trolley bus

Fields of commercial activity of Antonov ASTC include:

Major contractors and partners

Contract and licensee manufacturers

Chief designers

Aircraft

Antonov's aeroplanes (design office prefix An) range from the rugged An-2 biplane (which itself is comparatively large for a biplane) through the An-28 reconnaissance aircraft to the massive An-124 Ruslan and An-225 Mriya strategic airlifters (the latter being the world's heaviest aircraft with only one currently in service). Whilst less famous, the An-24, An-26, An-30 and An-32 family of twin turboprop, high winged, passenger/cargo/troop transport aircraft are important for domestic/short-haul air services particularly in parts of the world once led by communist governments. The An-72/An-74 series of small jetliners is slowly replacing that fleet, and a larger An-70 freighter is under certification.

The Antonov An-148 is a new regional airliner of twin-turbofan configuration. Over 150 aircraft have been ordered since 2007. A stretched version is in development, the An-158 (from 60–70 to 90–100 passengers).

Aircraft Name Maiden flight Remarks
A-40 Krylaty Tank 2 September 1942 Winged tank
An-2 Kukuruznik 31 August 1947 multi-purpose, biplane, single-engine utility transport.
An-2-100 Kukuruznik 10 July 2013 An-2 upgrade version refitted with Motor Sich kerosene-fueled engine (instead of original avgas).[4]
An-3 13 May 1980 turboprop conversion of An-2
An-4 31 July 1951 float-equipped An-2
An-6 Meteo 21 March 1948 weather reconnaissance aircraft based on An-2
An-8 11 February 1956 medium military transport
An-10 Ukraina 7 March 1957 medium turboprop-powered airliner
An-11 Motorised variant of the A-11 glider
An-12 16 December 1957 military turboprop-powered transport, developed from An-10
An-13 1962 Light aircraft developed from the A-13M motor glider
An-14 Pchelka 14 March 1958 light twin-engine transport
An-20 light turbocharged piston engine aircraft, developed from Cessna 210[citation needed]
An-22 Antei 27 February 1965 extremely large turboprop transport
An-24 20 October 1959 twin-turboprop airliner
An-26 21 May 1969 twin-turboprop transport, derived from An-24
An-28 September 1974 twin-turboprop light transport, developed from An-14
An-30 21 August 1967 An-24 adapted for aerial photography and mapping
An-32 9 July 1976 twin-turboprop hot-and-high transport, up-engined An-26 airframe
An-34 4 September 1961 military transport developed from An-24
An-38 23 June 1994 twin-turboprop light transport, stretched An-28
An-40 cancelled military transport developed from An-12
An-44 cargo aircraft project developed from An-24
An-50 cancelled airliner project, developed from An-24V
An-51 civil piston utility aircraft
An-52 light twin-piston aircraft
An-70 16 December 1994 large military transport, powered by four propfan engines, to replace An-12
An-71 12 July 1985 naval AWACS development of An-72
An-72 Cheburashka 31 August 1977 STOL transport, utilising the Coandă effect
An-74 Cheburashka 29 November 1983 civil version of An-72; version with engines below wings is called An-74TK-300[16]
An-88 AWACS project, not completed
An-91 Twin-engined cabin monoplane development of Cessna 310
An-102 light agricultural aircraft
An-122 further development of An-22
An-124 Ruslan 26 December 1982 strategic airlifter; largest aircraft ever mass-produced
An-126 heavy transport aircraft project
An-132 31 March 2017 transport aircraft based on An-32
An-140 17 September 1997 short-range turboprop airliner, to replace An-24
An-148 17 December 2004 regional jet for 68–85 passengers
An-158 28 April 2010 stretched version of An-148 for 99 passengers
An-168 business variant of An-148
An-171 stretched An-70
An-174 enlarged An-74 with engines below wings
An-178 7 May 2015 military transport based on the An-158
An-180 cancelled medium propfan airliner, around 175 passengers
An-188 transport aircraft based on An-70
An-218 postponed propfan- or turbofan-powered widebody airliner
An-225 Mriya 21 December 1988 An-124 derived strategic airlifter; largest aircraft ever built; only one has been put into service
An-325 cancelled planned improvement of An-225
An-714 20 October 1970 modification of An-14 with air cushion landing gear
GPS small twin-engined utility transport
OKA-38 Aist Copy of Fieseler Fi 156
Li-2V high-altitude research aircraft, converted from Lisunov Li-2
SKV Partizanskii Basis for An-14
T-2M Maverick ultralight trike for recreational club use and special forces requirements
VP Utka experimental air trailer (tow glider)

Gliders

Antonov A-15 in Czech markings
Aircraft Name Maiden flight Remarks
A-1 1930 single-seat training glider
A-2 1936 two-seat training glider derived from the A-1
A-3 Molodv
A-6
A-7 1942 military glider
A-9 1948 single-seat sailplane developed from the RF-7
A-10 1952 two-seat sailplane developed from the A-9
A-11 12 May 1958
A-13 1958
A-15 26 March 1960
BS-3 1934 training glider
BS-4 1935 training glider
BS-5 (OKA-31) 1936 training glider
DIP (OKA-14) Dognat i peregna 1932 record glider developed from OKA-6
IP
LEM-2 (OKA-37) 1937 motor glider
M-1 1933
M-2
M-3 (OKA-24) 1934
M-4 (OKA-29)
M-5 (OKA-30) 1936
OKA-1 Golub 1924
OKA-2 1925
OKA-3 1928
OKA-5 Standard-2 1930
OKA-6 Gorod Lenina 1930
OKA-7 Bubik 1930
OKA-13 Chest Uslovii Stalina 1932
OKA-21 1933 training glider based on DIP
PS-1 (OKA-11) training glider
PS-2 (OKA-12) training glider
RF-1 (OKA-17) 1933
RF-2 (OKA-18) 1933
RF-3 (OKA-19) 1933
RF-4 (OKA-20) 1933
RF-5 (OKA-23) 1934
RF-6 (OKA-28)
RF-7 1937 sports glider
RF-8 1941 troop glider, enlarged RF-7; redesignated A-7
US-1 1931 training glider
US-2 1931 training glider
US-3 1932 training glider, first mass-produced Soviet glider
US-4 training glider, redesignated A-1
US-5 (OKA-32) 1936 training glider
US-6 training glider, redesignated A-2

See also

References

  1. ^ "About the Company". www.antonov.com. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "Contacts" Archived 21 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 5 February 2011.
  3. ^ Cabinet of Ukraine gave Antonov to Ukroboronprom. Ukrinform. 12 May 2015
  4. ^ a b c Россия заказала у Антонова усовершенствованные кукурузники. Korrespondent (in Russian). 11 July 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  5. ^ Nicolai Petro (9 March 2016). "Why Ukraine needs Russia more than ever". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  6. ^ a b "ANTONOV history". www.antonov.com. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  7. ^ "ГП "Антонов" подвел итоги 2014 года: Только два новых самолета". Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  8. ^ a b "Андрей Хаустов: "Появился шанс, что вторая "Мрия" обретет свою жизнь в небе"". Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  9. ^ "UNIAN News. Latest news of Ukraine and world". uatoday.tv. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  10. ^ "Cabinet of Ministers liquidates Concern Antonov - 25.07.2017 17:39 — Ukrinform News". Retrieved 2017-07-27. 
  11. ^ "The Cabinet of Ministers has decided to liquidate State Aircraft Manufacturing Concern Antonov". Ukrinform. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  12. ^ "Ukraine starts liquidation of legendary aircraft manufacturer Antonov". RT. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  13. ^ "Following the recent announcement from the Government of Ukraine". antonov.com. Antonov State Company. 
  14. ^ Правительство задумалось о "Воздушном старте". Interfax (in Russian). 23 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  15. ^ "Antonov Ground Transport". Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2009. 
  16. ^ "Aviation Photo Search". Airliners.net. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 

Further reading

  • MacFarquhar, Neil. "Aviation Giant Is Nearly Grounded in Ukraine." The New York Times. 12 October 2014. Corrected on 12 October 2014.

External links

  • Antonov Company
  • Antonov (in Russian)
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