Anti-fat bias

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Anti-fat bias refers to the prejudicial assumption of personality characteristics based on an assessment of a person as being overweight or obese. It is also known as "fat shaming". Fat activists allege anti-fat bias can be found in many facets of society,[1] and blame the media for the pervasiveness of this phenomenon.[2][3]

Trait attribution

Anti-fat bias leads people to associate individuals who are overweight or obese with negative personality traits such as "lazy", "gluttonous", "stupid", "smelly", "slow", or "unmotivated". This bias is not restricted to clinically obese individuals, but also encompasses those whose body shape is in some way found unacceptable according to society's modern standards (although still within the normal or overweight BMI range).[4] It is a classical example of the halo effect in cultures where physical preferences favor low body fat. Fat-shaming is fairly common in the United States, even though most adult Americans are overweight. Huffington Post wrote "two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese. Yet overweight and obese individuals are subject to discrimination from employers, healthcare professionals and potential romantic partners".[5]

Anti-fat bias can be moderated by giving a mitigating context to the individual's appearance of obesity.[6] For example, when told an individual was obese because of "overeating" and "lack of exercise", a higher implicit bias was found among study participants than those not provided with context. When the group was told that "genetics" was to blame, they did not exhibit a lowered implicit bias after the explanation.

Anti-fat bias is not a strictly Western cultural phenomenon. Instances of implicit anti-fat bias have been found across several cultures.[7]

Newer research suggests that the stereotypical traits and attributions are post hoc justifications for the expression of prejudice against obese people. That is, a person first experiences involuntary feelings of disgust and aversion when seeing an obese person, and then the person tries to figure out a "rational" reason for these feelings. The person attributes negative characteristics, such as deciding that obese people are lazy or ignorant, to justify or explain the negative feelings.

Additionally, recent work around physical appearance issues, body image, and anti-fat or obesity prejudice suggests that feelings about one's own appearance may stimulate downward physical comparisons with obese individuals in order to make one feel better about one's own physical appearance.[8][9]


The media is often blamed for the strong negative trait associations that society has toward overweight individuals. There is a great deal of empirical research to support the idea of Thin Ideal media, or the idea that the media tends to glorify and focus on thin actors and actresses, models, and other public figures while avoiding the use of overweight individuals.

In a study of children's film and books regarding messages about the importance of appearance, media targeted for children were heavily saturated with messages emphasizing attractiveness as an important part of relationships and interpersonal interaction.[10] Among the movies used in the study, two Disney movies contained the highest amount of messages about personal beauty. This study also found 64% of the videos studied portrayed obese characters as unattractive, evil, cruel, unfriendly, and more than half of the portrayals involved the consideration or consumption of food.

Representation of overweight individuals in prime time programming is not representative of the actual proportion in the population.[11] Only 14% of females and 24% of males featured in the top ten prime-time fictional programs of 2003 were overweight. Those that were shown had few romantic interactions, rarely shared affection with other characters, and were frequently shown consuming food.

In 2007, another analysis sampled 135 scenes featuring overweight individuals from popular television programs and movies and coded for anti-fat humor.[12] The majority of anti-fat humor found was verbal and directed at the individual in their presence.

On September 29, 2011, prominent nationally syndicated columnist Michael Kinsley (founding editor of Slate magazine) wrote, "New Jersey Governor Chris Christie cannot be president: He is just too fat ... why should Christie's weight be more than we can bear in a president? Why should it even be a legitimate issue if he runs? One reason is that a presidential candidate should be judged on behavior and character ... Perhaps Christie is the one to help us get our national appetites under control. But it would help if he got his own under control first."[13] Governor Christie responded on October 4, 2011, stating "The people who pretend to be serious commentators who wrote about this are among the most ignorant I've ever heard in my life. To say that, because you’re overweight, you are therefore undisciplined—you know, I don't think undisciplined people get to achieve great positions in our society, so that kind of stuff is just ignorant."[14]

In 2013, Haley Morris-Cafiero's photography project "Wait Watchers", in which she photographed the reactions to her presence by random passers-by, went viral. New York magazine wrote, "The frequency with which Morris-Cafiero succeeds at documenting passersby's visible disdain for her body seems pretty depressing".[15]


Anti-fat bias has been observed in groups hoping to become physical education instructors. In one study, a group of 344 psychology or physical education majors at a New Zealand University were compared, and it was found that the prospective physical education teachers were more likely to display implicit anti-fat attitudes than the psychology majors.[16]

A number of studies have found that health care providers frequently have explicit and/or implicit biases against overweight people, and it has been found that overweight patients may receive lower quality care as a result of their weight.[17] Medical professionals who specialize in the treatment of obesity have been found to have strong negative associations toward obese individuals.[18]

In one study, preschool-aged children reported a preference for average-sized children over overweight children as friends.[19] As a consequence of anti-fat bias, overweight individuals often find themselves suffering repercussions in many facets of society, including legal and employment issues later in their life.[1] Overweight individuals also find themselves facing issues with increased weight such as decreased lifespan, joint problems, and shortness of breath.[20]

According to a 2010 review of published studies, interventions seeking to reduce prejudice and social stigma against fat and obesity are largely ineffective.[21]

Negative effects

There are many negative effects connected to anti-fat bias, the most prominent being that it is ineffective at treating obesity, and leads to long-lasting body image issues, eating disorders, suicide, and depression.[22]

People who expect to be fat-shamed by healthcare providers are less likely to seek care for medical issues or for weight loss, even if the weight gain is caused by medical problems.[23] Common medical issues that cause weight gain include type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypothyroidism, and the side effects of some medications.

One prominent argument against anti-fat bias is that it doesn't treat the underlying causes of obesity, especially the emotional issues faced by overweight children. Another argument is that you can't tell if someone has food addiction just by looking at them, as obesity is not the same thing as an eating disorder, and someone might be considered healthy even if they don't fit society's standards for what appears healthy. Fighters of anti-fat bias claim that health should not be connected to weight, as a number isn't the only indicator of health. They also say that society promotes the opinion that fat bodies can't be attractive.[24]

See also


  1. ^ a b Puhl, R.; Brownell, K. (2001). "Bias, discrimination, and obesity". Obesity Research. 9 (12): 788–805. doi:10.1038/oby.2001.108. PMID 11743063. 
  2. ^ Ahern, A. L.; Bennett, K. M.; Hetherington, M. M. (2008). "Internalization of the Ultra-Thin Ideal: Positive Implicit Associations with Underweight Fashion Models are Associated with Drive for Thinness in Young Women". Eating Disorders. 16 (4): 294–307. doi:10.1080/10640260802115852. PMID 18568920. 
  3. ^ Hawkins, N.; Richards, P. S.; Granley, H. M. C.; Stein, D. M. (2004). "The Impact of Exposure to the Thin-Ideal Media Image on Women". Eating Disorders. 12 (1): 35–50. doi:10.1080/10640260490267751. PMID 16864303. 
  4. ^ Lerner, R.; Gellert, E. (1969). "Body build identification, preference and aversion in children". Developmental Psychology. 1 (5): 456–462. doi:10.1037/h0027966. 
  5. ^ "LOOK: The Bravest Woman We've Met This Week". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  6. ^ Teachman, B.A.; Gapinski, K.D.; Brownell, K.D.; Rawlins, M.; Jeyaram, S. (2003). "Demonstrations of implicit anti-fat bias: The impact of providing causal information and evoking empathy". Health Psychology. 22 (1): 68–78. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.22.1.68. PMID 12558204. 
  7. ^ Crandall, C.; D'Anello, S.; Sakalli, N.; Lazarus, E.; Nejtardt, G.; Feather, N. (2001). "An attribution-model of prejudice: Anti-fat attitudes in six nations". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 27 (1): 30–37. doi:10.1177/0146167201271003. 
  8. ^ O'Brien, KS; Hunter, JA; Halberstadt, J; Anderson, J (2007). "Body image and explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes: The mediating role of physical appearance comparisons". Body Image. 4: 249–256. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.06.001. 
  9. ^ O'Brien, KS; Caputi, P; Minto, R; Peoples, G; Hooper, C; Kell, S; et al. (2009). "Upward and Downward Physical Appearance-Related Comparisons: Development of a Measure and Examination of Predictive Qualities". Body Image. 6: 201–206. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.03.003. 
  10. ^ Herbozo, S.; Tantleff-Dunn, S.; Gokee-Larose, J.; Thompson, J.K. (2004). "Beauty and thinness messages in children's media: A content analysis". Eating Disorders. 12 (1): 21–34. doi:10.1080/10640260490267742. PMID 16864302. 
  11. ^ Greenberg, B.; Eastin, M.; Hofschire, L.; Lachlan, K.; Brownell, K. (2003). "Portrayals of Overweight and Obese Individuals on Commercial Television". American Journal of Public Health. 93 (8): 1342–1348. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.8.1342. PMC 1447967Freely accessible. PMID 12893625. 
  12. ^ Himes, S.M.; Thompson, J.K. (2007). "Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: A content analysis". Obesity. 15 (3): 712–719. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.635. 
  13. ^ Kinsley, Michael (September 29, 2011). "Requiem for a Governor Before He's in the Ring: Michael Kinsley". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  14. ^ Christie, Chris (October 4, 2011). "Pundits Pack Meaner Punch Than Comedians' Fat Jokes". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  15. ^ Schwiegershausen, Erica (November 19, 2014). "The Photographer Who Captures Fat-Shaming on Camera". The Cut. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  16. ^ O'Brien, K.S.; Hunter, J.A.; Banks, M. (2007). "Implicit anti-fat bias in physical educators: Physical attributes, ideology and socialization". International Journal of Obesity. 31 (2): 308–314. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803398. PMID 16733526. 
  17. ^ Phelan, S. M.; Burgess, D. J.; Yeazel, M. W.; Hellerstedt, W. L.; Griffin, J. M.; van Ryn, M. (April 2015). "Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity". Obesity Reviews. 16 (4): 319–326. doi:10.1111/obr.12266. PMC 4381543Freely accessible. PMID 25752756. 
  18. ^ Teachman, B.A.; Brownell, K.D. (2001). "Implicit anti-fat bias among health professionals: Is anyone immune?". International Journal of Obesity. 25 (10): 1525–1531. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801745. PMID 11673776. 
  19. ^ Musher-Eizenman, D.; Holub, S.; Miller, A.; Goldstein, S.; Edwards-Leeper, L. (2004). "Body size stigmatization in preschool children: The role of control attributions". Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 29 (8): 613–620. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsh063. PMID 15491983. 
  20. ^
  21. ^ Daníelsdóttir S, O’Brien KS, Ciao A. Anti-fat prejudice reduction: A review of published studies. Obesity Facts 2010; 3: 47–58.
  22. ^ S. Gavin, Gabriel C. (4 January 2015). "What's Wrong With 'Fat Shaming?'". Psychology Today. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  23. ^ Purcell, Carey (2017-10-26). "'No Fatties': When Health Care Hurts". Longreads. Retrieved 2018-05-06. 
  24. ^ Baker, Jes (24 April 2014). "6 Things That I Understand About The Fat Acceptance Movement". Thought Catalog. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
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