Allies of World War I

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Allies of World War I
Military alliance
1914–1918
 *     Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies) *     Central Powers (and their colonies) *     Neutral Powers    Principal Allied Powers:  France    British Empire   Russia to October 1917   Japan from August 1914   Italy from April 1915   United States; co-belligerent from April 1917       Associated Allies and co-belligerents: * 1914;   Serbia   Belgium   Montenegro  * 1915;  Emirate of Asir   Emirate of Nejd and Hasa  * 1916;   Portugal   Romania   * 1917;   Hejaz   Greece   China   Siam   Brazil * 1918;   Albania[1]   Armenia
  •      Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Central Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Neutral Powers

Principal Allied Powers:

 France
British Empire
 Russia to October 1917
 Japan from August 1914
 Italy from April 1915
 United States; co-belligerent from April 1917


Associated Allies and co-belligerents:
Status Military alliance
Historical era World War I
Succeeded by
Allies of World War II
European diplomatic alignments shortly before the war

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers is the term commonly used for the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the 1914-1918 First World War. The Allies were further divided into so-called Principal and Associated or Affiliated Powers.

In 1907, the French Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire formed the Triple Entente; entry into the war in 1914 automatically involved their respective colonies, while Japan was added to the Entente in August 1914. Italy was originally part of the 1882 Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary but remained neutral in 1914 before joining the Entente in 1915. Affiliated members included Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Romania.[2]

In April 1917, the United States declared war on Germany, then Austria in December 1917; although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria broke off diplomatic relations with the US, neither declared war.[3] The US did so as a co-belligerent, rather than a formal member of the Entente, due to the long-standing American opposition to "foreign entanglements".[4]

Background

1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente

When the war began in 1914, the Central Powers were opposed by the Triple Entente, formed in 1907 by the British Empire, the Russian Empire and the French Third Republic.

Fighting commenced when Austria invaded Serbia on 28 July 1914, purportedly in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Emperor Franz Joseph; this brought Serbia's ally Montenegro into the war on 8 August and it attacked the Austrian naval base at Cattaro, modern Kotor.[5] At the same time, German troops entered neutral Belgium and Luxembourg as dictated by the Schlieffen Plan; over 95% of Belgium was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the Yser Front throughout the war. This allowed Belgium to be treated as an Ally, in contrast to Luxembourg which retained control over domestic affairs but was occupied by the German military.

In the East, between 7-9 August the Russians entered German East Prussia on 7 August, Austrian Eastern Galicia. Japan joined the Entente by declaring war on Germany on 23 August, then Austria on 25 August.[6] On 2 September, Japanese forces surrounded the German Treaty Port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China and occupied German colonies in the Pacific, including the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands.

Despite its membership of the Triple Alliance, Italy remained neutral until 23 May 1915 when it joined the Entente, declaring war on Austria but not Germany. On 17 January 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente;[7] this was offset when Germany declared war on Portugal in March 1916, while Romania commenced hostilities against Austria on 27 August.[8]

On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war as a co-belligerent, along with the associated allies of Liberia, Siam and Greece. After the 1917 October Revolution, Russia left the Entente and and agreed a separate peace with the Central Powers with the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. Romania was forced to do the same in the May 1918 Treaty of Bucharest but on 10 November, it repudiated the Treaty and once more declared war on the Central Powers.

These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the League of Nations on 25 January 1919.[9] This came into being on 16 January 1920 with Britain, France, Italy and Japan as permanent members of the Executive Council; the US Senate voted against ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on 19 March, thus preventing American participation.

Statistics

Statistics of the Allied Powers (1913) and enlisted soldiers during the war[10]
Population
(millions)
Land
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
Mobilized personnel
First Wave: 1914
Russian Empire Russia (inc. Poland) 173.2 21.7 257.7 12,000,0003
Finland 3.2 0.4 6.6
Total 176.4 22.1 264.3
French Republic France 39.8 0.5 138.7 8,410,0003
French colonies 48.3 10.7 31.5
Total 88.1 11.2 170.2
British Empire United Kingdom 46.0 0.3 226.4 6,211,9222
British colonies 380.2 13.5 257 1,440,4371[11]
British Dominions 19.9 19.5 77.8 1,307,0001
Total 446.1 33.3 561.2 8,689,000[12]
Empire of Japan Japan 55.1 0.4 76.5 800,0003
Japanese colonies[13] 19.1 0.3 16.3
Total 74.2 0.7 92.8
Yugoslav states[14] 7.0 0.2 7.2 760,0003
Second Wave (1915–16)
Kingdom of Italy Italy 35.6 0.3 91.3 5,615,0003
Italian colonies 2.0 2.0 1.3
Total 37.6 2.3 92.6
Portuguese Republic Portugal 6.0 0.1 7.4 100,0003
Portuguese colonies 8.7 2.4 5.2
Total 14.7 2.5 12.6
Kingdom of Romania 7.7 0.1 11.7 750,0003
Third Wave (1917–18)
United States of America United States 96.5 7.8 511.6 4,355,0003
overseas dependencies[15] 9.8 1.8 10.6
Total 106.3 9.6 522.2
Central American states[16] 9.0 0.6 10.6
Republic of the United States of Brazil 25.0 8.5 20.3 1,71312
Kingdom of Greece 4.8 0.1 7.7 230,0003
Kingdom of Siam 8.4 0.5 7.0 1,2842
Republic of China 441.0 11.1 243.7
Republic of Liberia 1.5 0.1 0.9
Aggregate statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[17]
Population
(millions)
Territory
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
November 1914
Allies, total 793.3 67.5 1,096.5
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.8
November 1916
Allies, total 853.3 72.5 1,213.4
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.8
November 1918
Allies, total 1,271.7 80.8 1,760.5
Percentage of world 70% 61% 64%
UK, France and USA only 182.3 8.7 876.6
Percentage of world 10% 7% 32%
Central Powers[18] 156.1 6.0 383.9
World, 1913 1,810.3 133.5 2,733.9

Principal Powers

The British Empire

British Empire in 1914

In response to the invasion of Belgium, the British Empire declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.[19] This automatically involved all members of the Empire, many of whom made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, both in the provision of troops and civilian labourers.

The Empire was split into Crown Colonies that were administered by the Colonial Office in London, such as Nigeria, [a] and the self-governing Dominions. These consisted of Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa, which controlled their own domestic policies and military expenditure but not foreign policy.

Indian soldiers of the 2nd Rajput Light Infantry on the Western Front, winter of 1914–15.

The anomaly was British India or the Empire of India, which then included modern India, Pakistan, Myanmar and Bangladesh; this was governed directly by British officials on behalf of George V, rather than the Colonial Office. Over one million members of the British Indian Army served in different theatres of the war, primarily France and the Middle East.

Canadian Army recruitment poster

From 1914-1916, overall Imperial diplomatic, political and military strategy was controlled by the British War Cabinet in London; in 1917 it was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which included representatives from the Dominions.[20] Under the War Cabinet were the Chief of the Imperial General Staff or CIGS, responsible for all Imperial ground forces, and the Admiralty that did the same for the Royal Navy. Theatre commanders like Douglas Haig on the Western Front or Edmund Allenby in Palestine then reported to the CIGS.

Apart from the Indian Army, the largest individual units were the Australian Corps and Canadian Corps in France, which by 1918 were commanded by their own generals, John Monash and Arthur Currie.[21] Contingents from South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland served in theatres including France, Gallipoli, German East Africa and the Middle East. Australian troops separately occupied German New Guinea, with the South Africans doing the same in German South West Africa; this resulted in the Maritz rebellion by former Boers, which was quickly suppressed. After the war, New Guinea and South-West Africa became Protectorates, held until 1975 and 1990 respectively.

The Russian Empire

Russian 76mm battery

In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in 1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak country".[22] Russian government official Nikolaĭ N. Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country; it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a death-blow to Serbia."[22] Russia held close diplomatic relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary and Germany to expel Russian influence in the Balkans.[22] On 30 July 1914, Russia enacted a general mobilization. The day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary.

Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914.[23]

The French Republic

French cavalry cross a river during the Battle of Verdun

After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France.[24]

Empire of Japan

Japanese marines landing at the German concession in Tsingtao China

Prior to the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Japan was a semi-feudal, largely agrarian state with few natural resources and limited technology. By 1914, it had transformed itself into a modern industrial state, with a powerful military; by defeating China in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894-1895, it established itself as the primary power in East Asia while also acquiring the then-unfied Korea and Formosa, now modern Taiwan.

Concerned by Russian expansion in Korea and Manchuria, Britain and Japan signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance on January 30, 1902, agreeing that if either were attacked by a third party, the other would remain neutral and if attacked by two or more opponents, the other would come to its aid. Effectively, Japan could rely on British support in a war with Russia, if either France or Germany, which also had interests in China, decided to join them.[25] This gave Japan the reassurance needed to take on Russia in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War, after which it established itself the Chinese province of Manchuria.

The Japanese carrier Wakamiya conducted the first ship-launched aerial attack in 1914

Having Japan as an ally in the Far East helped John Fisher, First Sea Lord from 1904-1910, to re-focus British naval resources in the North Sea and counter the threat from the Imperial German Navy. The Alliance was renewed in 1911; in 1914, Japan joined the Entente in return for German territories in the Pacific, greatly annoying the Australian government which also wanted them.[26]

On 7 August, Britain officially asked for assistance in destroying German naval units in China and Japan formally declared war on Germany on 23 August, followed by Austria-Hungary on 25th.[27] On 2 September 1914, Japanese forces surrounded the German Treaty Port of Qingdao, then known as Tsingtao, which surrendered on 7 November. The Imperial Japanese Navy simultaneously occupied German colonies in the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands, while in 1917, a Japanese naval squadron was sent to support the Allies in the Mediterranean.[28]

However, Japan's primary focus was to strengthen their position in China while the Europeans were otherwise engaged; this inevitably led to tensions first with Russia, then the US after it entered the war in April 1917. Despite protests from the other Allies, after the war Japan refused to return Qingdao and the province of Shandong to China.[29] Japanese resentment at this meant it now saw its former partners as rivals.

Kingdom of Italy

Antonio Salandra, Italian PM March 1914 - June 1916
General Luigi Cadorna Italian Chief of Staff July 1914 - November 1917

While the 1882 Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy was renewed at regular intervals, it was fatally compromised by the clash between Italian ambitions in the Adriatic and the Aegean with those of Austria-Hungary. Italian nationalists referred to Austrian-held Trieste and South Tyrol as 'the lost territories,' making an Alliance with Austria so controversial that its terms were kept secret until it expired in 1915.[30]

Alberto Pollio, Chief of Staff of the Italian Army was very pro-Austria but when he died on 1 July 1914, most of the prospects for Italian support died with him.[31] Prime Minister Antonio Salandra argued since the Alliance was defensive in nature, Austria's aggression against Serbia and Italy's exclusion from the decision-making process meant it was not obliged to join them.[32]

Italian caution made sense since France and Britain supplied or controlled the import of most of Italy's raw materials, including 90% of its coal.[32] Salandra described the process of determining which side Italy would take as "sacred egoism;' all sides expected the war to end before mid-1915 at the latest, making decision urgent.[33] He ordered Pollio's replacement, General Luigi Cadorna to begin moving Italian troops away from the frontier with France to the North-Eastern one with Austria.[34]

Under the April 1915 Treaty of London, Italy agreed to join the Entente in return for Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary and other concessions; in return, it declared war on Austria-Hungary in May 1915 as required, although not on Germany until 1916.[35] Italian resentment at the difference between the promises of 1915 and the actual results of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles would be powerful factors in the rise of Mussolini.[36]

Affiliated state combatants

Kingdom of Belgium

In 1830, the southern provinces of the Netherlands broke away to form the Kingdom of Belgium and their independence was confirmed by the 1839 Treaty of London. Article VII of the Treaty required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral and committed Austria, France, Germany and Russia to guarantee that against aggression by any other state, including the signatories.

The Yser Front, 1917 by Belgian artist Georges-Émile Lebacq.
Belgian Congolese Force Publique troops in German East Africa 1916

It was accepted Germany would probably violate Belgian neutrality in the event of war with France; what wasn't clear was the extent. The original Schlieffen Plan required only a limited incursion into the Belgian Ardennes, rather than a full scale invasion; in September 1911, the Belgian Foreign Minister told a British Embassy official they would not call for assistance if the Germans limited themselves to that.[37] While neither Britain or France could allow Germany free passage through Belgium, a Belgian refusal to ask for help would complicate matters for the British Liberal government, which contained a significant isolationist element.

However, Russian military expansion and fears of a two front war meant the German High Command now viewed a quick victory over France as imperative; the huge increase in military spending in 1913 meant that to accommodate the extra troops, the 'incursion' became a full-scale invasion. The Germans accepted the risk of British intervention; in common with most of Europe, they expected it to be a short war while their London Ambassador claimed civil war in Ireland would prevent Britain from assisting its Entente partners.[38]

On 3 August, the Belgian government received an ultimatum demanding they allow the Germans unimpeded progress through any part of Belgium, which was refused. Early on the morning of 4 August, the German Army invaded and the Belgians called for assistance under the 1839 Treaty, bringing Britain into the war; by the end of 1914, over 95% of the country was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the Yser Front throughout the war.

In 1916, 25,000 Congolese troops plus an estimated 260,000 porters from the Belgian Congo joined British forces in the East African Campaign.[39] By 1917, they controlled the western part of German East Africa which would become the Belgian League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi or modern-day Rwanda and Burundi.[40]

Brazil

Brazilian soldiers in World War I

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. The First Brazilian Republic sent the Naval Division in War Operations that joined the British fleet in Gibraltar and made the first Brazilian naval effort in international waters. In compliance with the commitments made at the Inter-American Conference, held in Paris from November 20 to December 3, 1917, the Brazilian Government sent a medical mission composed of civilian and military surgeons to work in field hospitals of the European theater, a contingent of sergeants and officers to serve with the French army; Airmen from the Army and Navy to join the Royal Air Force, and the employment of part of the Fleet, primarily in the anti-submarine war.

Greece

The disagreement between the pro-German King Constantine I of Greece and the liberal Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, regarding the country's stance, caused a National Schism, but eventually a united Greece joined the Allies in 1917, while Greek units were fighting at the Macedonian Front since 1916.

Montenegro

Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.

Nejd and Hasa

The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa agreed to enter the war as an ally of Britain in the Treaty of Darin on December 26, 1915.[41]

Idrisid Emirate of Asir

The Idrisid Emirate of Asir participated in the Arab revolt. Its Emir, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, signed an agreement with the British and joined the Allies in May 1915.

Kingdom of Serbia

Serbian soldiers during World War I

Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary invaded.

Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia, and both Serbia and Russia resented Austria-Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population. Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 when the Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed.

During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav Committee who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs from Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its intention to form a state of Yugoslavia.

The first two allied victories in the war were won by the Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and Kolubara, in western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country, suffering heavy losses. Serbia suffered great losses during the war, almost 50% of all men and around 30% of its entire population were killed.

Kingdom of Romania

Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum
Vlaicu III
Romanian troops at Mărășești

Equal status with the main Allied Powers was one of the primary conditions for Romania's entry into the War. The Powers officially recognized this status through the 1916 Treaty of Bucharest.[42] Romania fought on 3 of the 4 European Fronts: Eastern, Balkan and Italian, fielding in total over 1,200,000 troops.[43]

Romanian military industry was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also upgraded 120 German Krupp 105 mm howitzers, the result being the most effective field howitzer in Europe at that time. Romania even managed to design and build from scratch its own model of mortar, the 250 mm Negrei Model 1916.[44]

Other Romanian technological assets include the building of Vlaicu III, the world's first aircraft made of metal.[45] The Romanian Navy possessed the largest warships on the Danube. They were a class of 4 river monitors, built locally at the Galați shipyard using parts manufactured in Austria-Hungary, and the first one launched was Lascăr Catargiu, in 1907.[46][47] The Romanian monitors displaced almost 700 tons, were armed with three 120 mm naval guns in 3 turrets, two 120 mm naval howitzers, four 47 mm anti-aircraft guns and two 6.5 machine guns.[48] The monitors took part in the Battle of Turtucaia and the First Battle of Cobadin. The Romanian-designed Schneider 150 mm Model 1912 howitzer was considered one of the most modern field guns on the Western Front.[49]

Romania's entry into the War in August 1916 provoked major changes for the Germans. General Erich von Falkenhayn was dismissed and sent to command the Central Powers forces in Romania, which enabled Hindenburg's subsequent ascension to power.[50] Due to having to fight against all of the Central Powers on the longest front in Europe (1,600 km) and with little foreign help (only 50,000 Russians aided 650,000 Romanians in 1916),[51] the Romanian capital was conquered that December. Vlaicu III was also captured and shipped to Germany, being last seen in 1942.[52] The Romanian administration established a new capital at Iași and continued to fight on the Allied side in 1917.[53] Despite being relatively short, the Romanian campaign of 1916 provided considerable respite for the Western Allies, as the Germans ceased all their other offensive operations in order to deal with Romania.[54] After suffering a tactical defeat against the Romanians (aided by Russians) in July 1917 at Mărăști, the Central Powers launched two counterattacks, at Mărășești and Oituz. The German offensive at Mărășești was soundly defeated, with German prisoners later telling their Romanian captors that German casualties were extremely heavy, and that they "had not encountered such stiff resistance since the battles of Somme and Verdun".[55] The Austro-Hungarian offensive at Oituz also failed. On 22 September, the Austro-Hungarian Enns-class river monitor SMS Inn was sunk by a Romanian mine near Brăila.[56][57] After Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and dropped out of the War, Romania was left surrounded by the Central Powers and eventually signed a similar treaty on 7 May 1918. Despite being forced to cede land to Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, Romania ended up with a net gain in territory due to the Union with Bessarabia. On 10 November, Romania re-entered the War and fought a war with Hungary that lasted until August 1919.

Co-belligerents; the United States

The United States declared war on Germany in April 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.[58] The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico regain some of its territory lost to the U.S nearly seven decades before, was also a contributing factor. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[4] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war,[3] as did Austria-Hungary. Eventually, however, the United States also declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917, predominantly to help hard-pressed Italy.

Non-state combatants

Three non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:[citation needed]

Leaders

Kingdom of Serbia Serbia

Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegro

Russian Empire Russia (1914–1917)

Belgium Belgium

French Third Republic France

British Empire British Empire

Canada Dominion of Canada

Australia Commonwealth of Australia

British Raj Empire of India

Union of South Africa Union of South Africa

Dominion of New Zealand Dominion of New Zealand

Dominion of Newfoundland Dominion of Newfoundland

Empire of Japan Japan

Kingdom of Italy Italy (1915–1918)

Kingdom of Romania Romania (1916–1918)

First Portuguese Republic Portugal (1916–1918)

Kingdom of Greece Greece (1916/17–1918)

Greek war poster
  • Constantine I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, due to Allied pressure, without formally resigning.
  • Alexander: King of Greece, he became King in 1917 after his father and brother retired from the throne.
  • Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
  • Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general of the Hellenic Army.

United States United States (1917–1918)

The use of naval convoys to transport U.S. troops to France, 1917.
The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919.

Thailand Siam (Thailand) (1917–1918)

See main Article: Siam in World War I

First Brazilian Republic Brazil (1917–1918)

See main Article: Brazil during World War I

Armenia Armenia (1918)

Personnel and casualties

A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Military Fatalities Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia 412,9531 61,928 (14.99%)[60] 152,171 214,099 52%
Belgium 267,0003 38,172 (14.29%)([61] 44,686 82,858 31%
Brazil 1,71312 100 (5.84%)[62] 0 100 5.84%
Canada 628,9641 64,944 (10.32%)[63] 149,732 214,676 34%
France 8,410,0003 1,397,800 (16.62%)[64] 4,266,000 5,663,800 67%
Greece 230,0003 26,000 (11.30%)[65] 21,000 47,000 20%
India 1,440,4371 74,187 (5.15%)[66] 69,214 143,401 10%
Italy 5,615,0003 651,010 (11.59%)[67] 953,886 1,604,896 29%
Japan 800,0003 415 (0.05%)[68] 907 1,322 <1%
Monaco 80[69] 8 (10.00%)[69] 0 8[69] 10%
Montenegro 50,0003 3,000 (6.00%) 10,000 13,000 26%
Nepal 200,000[70] 30,670 (15.33%) 21,009 49,823 25%
New Zealand 128,5251 18,050 (14.04%)[71] 41,317 59,367 46%
Portugal 100,0003 7,222 (7.22%)[72] 13,751 20,973 21%
Romania 750,0003 250,000 (33.33%)[73] 120,000 370,000 49%
Russia 12,000,0003 1,811,000 (15.09%)[74] 4,950,000 6,761,000 56%
Serbia 707,3433 275,000 (38.87%)[75] 133,148 408,148 58%
Siam 1,2842 19 (1.48%) 0 19 2%
South Africa 136,0701 9,463 (6.95%)[76] 12,029 21,492 16%
United Kingdom 6,211,9222 886,342 (14.26%)[77] 1,665,749 2,552,091 41%
United States 4,355,0003 53,402 (1.23%)[78] 205,690 259,092 5.9%
Total 42,244,409 5,741,389 12,925,833 18,744,547 49%

See also

Footnotes

References

  1. ^ Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania and King Zog ... By Owen Pearson
  2. ^ Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
  3. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
  4. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
  5. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 44. ISBN 9780006376668. 
  6. ^ Mizokami, Kyle, "Japan’s baptism of fire: World War I put country on a collision course with West", The Japan Times, 27 July 2014
  7. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 225. ISBN 9780006376668. 
  8. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 282. ISBN 9780006376668. 
  9. ^ Magliveras, Konstantin (1999). Exclusion from Participation in International Organisations: The Law and Practice Behind Member States' Expulsion and Suspension of Membership. Brill. pp. 8–12. ISBN 9041112391. 
  10. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16. 
  11. ^ Indian Army only
  12. ^ Baker, Chris. "Some British Army statistics of the Great War". www.1914-1918.net. Archived from the original on 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2017-08-07. 
  13. ^ Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin
  14. ^ Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina
  15. ^ As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies
  16. ^ Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
  17. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16. 
  18. ^ Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
  19. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
  20. ^ Schuyler, Robert Livingston (March 1920). "The British Cabinet, 1916-1919". Political Science Quarterly. 35 (1): 77–93. doi:10.2307/2141500. 
  21. ^ Perry (2004), p.xiii
  22. ^ a b c Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. P262
  23. ^ Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293.
  24. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
  25. ^ Cavendish, Richard (January 2002). "The 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance". History Today. 52 (1). Retrieved 15 August 2018. 
  26. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 123. ISBN 9780006376668. 
  27. ^ "宣戦の詔書 [Sensen no shōsho, Imperial Rescript on Declaration of War] (Aug. 23, 1914), Kanpō, Extra ed., Aug. 23, 1914" (PDF). 
  28. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 329. ISBN 9780006376668. 
  29. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 522. ISBN 9780006376668. 
  30. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  31. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  32. ^ a b Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194.
  33. ^ Clark, Mark (2008). Modern Italy, 1871 to the Present (Longman History of Italy). Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 978-1405823524. 
  34. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  35. ^ Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198.
  36. ^ Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 378–382. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3. 
  37. ^ Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 759-781: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726. 
  38. ^ Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 852-864: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726. 
  39. ^ van Reybrouck, David (2014). Congo: The Epic History of a People. Harper Collins. pp. 132 passim. ISBN 0062200127. 
  40. ^ Strachan, Hew (2014). First World War; a New History. Simon & Schuster UK. p. 70. ISBN 1471134261. 
  41. ^ Abdullah I of Jordan; Philip Perceval Graves (1950). Memoirs. p. 186. 
  42. ^ Charles Upson Clark, United Roumania, p. 135
  43. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, Encyclopedia of World War I, p. 273
  44. ^ Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), pp. 40, 49, 50, 54, 59, 61, 63, 65 and 66 (in Romanian)
  45. ^ Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243
  46. ^ International Naval Research Organization, Warship International, Volume 21, p. 160
  47. ^ Frederick Thomas Jane, Jane's Fighting Ships, p. 343
  48. ^ Robert Gardiner, Conway's All the World Fighting Ships 1906–1921, p. 422
  49. ^ Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), p. 53 (in Romanian)
  50. ^ Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 282
  51. ^ Glenn E. Torrey, Romania and World War I, p. 58
  52. ^ Michael Hundertmark, Holger Steinle, Phoenix aus der Asche – Die Deutsche Luftfahrt Sammlung Berlin, pp. 110–114 (in German)
  53. ^ România în anii primului război mondial (Romania in the years of the First World War), Volume II, p. 830 (in Romanian)
  54. ^ Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 287
  55. ^ King of Battle: Artillery in World War I, p. 347
  56. ^ Angus Konstam, Gunboats of World War I, p. 29
  57. ^ René Greger, Austro-Hungarian warships of World War I, p. 142
  58. ^ "First World War.com - Primary Documents - U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 2 April 1917". 
  59. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  60. ^ Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–215-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead1,237.
  61. ^ Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." 1,352.
  62. ^ Francisco Verras; "D.N.O.G.: contribuicao da Marinha Brasileira na Grande Guerra" ("DNOG; the role of Brazilian Navy in the Great War") (in Portuguese) "A Noite" Ed. 1920
  63. ^ Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths5-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead1,237.
  64. ^ France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. 7,414-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.7,414
  65. ^ Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing8,339, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease6,160
  66. ^ India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead5. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead1,237
  67. ^ Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data9.
  68. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army10,111.
  69. ^ a b c "Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur". 
  70. ^ Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
  71. ^ New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–215. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead1,237.
  72. ^ Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW1,354.
  73. ^ Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"6,64. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
  74. ^ Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.6,46–57
  75. ^ Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis6,62–64
  76. ^ South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–2115. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead1,237.
  77. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths5. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK1,237, 507 from "Other colonies"1,237 and the Royal Navy (32,287)1,339.
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately 1,339; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK1,674–678.
  78. ^ United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[1] Archived 25 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine., The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead 11,481.

Sources

  • ^1 The War Office (2006) [1922]. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press. ISBN 1-84734-681-2. OCLC 137236769. 
  • ^2 Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521077-8. OCLC 233987354. 
  • ^3 Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3351-X. 
  • ^4 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF). 
  • ^5 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Debt of Honour Register". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. 
  • ^6 Urlanis Boris (2003) [1971, Moscow]. Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. OCLC 123124938. 
  • ^7 Huber Michel (1931). La population de la France pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur Les revenus avant et après la guerre (in French). Paris. OCLC 4226464. 
  • ^8 Bujac Jean Léopold Emile (1930). Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918–1922 (in French). Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 10808602. 
  • ^9 Mortara Giorgio (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra (in Italian). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. OCLC 2099099. 
  • ^10 Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun – The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. OCLC 32615324. 
  • ^11 Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. OCLC 48066096. 
  • ^12 Hernâni Donato (1987). Dicionário das Batalhas Brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro: IBRASA. ISBN 8534800340. 

Bibliography

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Gooch, G. P. Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy (1940), 475pp summarizes memoirs of major participants
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)
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