Alexander H. Stephens

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Alexander H. Stephens
Alexander H Stephens by Vannerson, 1859.jpg
photographed in 1859
50th Governor of Georgia
In office
November 4, 1882 – March 4, 1883
Preceded by Alfred Colquitt
Succeeded by James Boynton
Vice President of the Confederate States
In office
February 22, 1862 – May 11, 1865
Provisional: February 11, 1861 – February 22, 1862
President Jefferson Davis
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 8th district
In office
December 1, 1873 – November 4, 1882
Preceded by John Jones
Succeeded by Seaborn Reese
In office
March 4, 1853 – March 3, 1859
Preceded by Robert Toombs
Succeeded by John Jones
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1845 – March 3, 1853
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by David Reese
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's At-large district
In office
October 2, 1843 – March 3, 1845
Preceded by Mark Cooper
Succeeded by Constituency abolished
Member of the Georgia Senate
In office
1842
Personal details
Born Alexander Hamilton Stephens
(1812-02-11)February 11, 1812
Crawfordville, Georgia
Died March 4, 1883(1883-03-04) (aged 71)
Atlanta, Georgia
Nationality American
Political party Whig (1836–51)
Unionist (1851–60)
Constitutional Union (1860–61)
Democratic (1861–83)
Alma mater University of Georgia
Signature Cursive signature in ink

Alexander H. Stephens (born Alexander Hamilton Stephens; February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was an American politician who served as the Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. A member of the Democratic Party, Stephens also served in the United States House of Representatives and as the 50th Governor of Georgia.

Stephens attended Franklin College and established a legal practice in his home town of Crawfordville, Georgia. After serving in both houses of the Georgia General Assembly, he won election to Congress, taking his seat in 1843. He became a leading Southern Whig and strongly opposed the Mexican–American War. After the war, Stephens was a prominent supporter of the Compromise of 1850 and helped draft the Georgia Platform, which opposed secession. A proponent of the expansion of slavery into the territories, Stephens also helped pass the Kansas–Nebraska Act. As the Whig Party collapsed in the 1850s, Stephens eventually joined the Democratic Party and worked with President James Buchanan to admit Kansas as a state under the Lecompton Constitution.

Stephens declined to seek re-election in 1858, but continued to publicly advocate against secession. After Georgia and other Southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America, Stephens was elected as the Confederate Vice President. Stephens's Cornerstone Speech of March 1861 defended slavery in the most uncompromising terms, though after the rebellion he tried to distance himself from his earlier sentiments. In the course of the war, he became increasingly critical of President Jefferson Davis's policies, especially conscription and the suspension of habeas corpus.[1] In February 1865, he was one of the commissioners who met with Lincoln at the abortive Hampton Roads Conference to discuss peace terms.

After the war, Stephens was imprisoned until October 1865. The following year, the Georgia legislature elected Stephens to the United States Senate, but the Senate declined to seat him due to his role in the Civil War. He won election to the House of Representatives in 1873 and held that office until 1882, when he resigned from Congress to become Governor of Georgia. Stephens served as governor until his death in March 1883.

Early life and career

Stephens was born on February 11, 1812.[2] His parents were Andrew Baskins Stephens and Margaret Grier.[3] The Stephenses lived on a farm near present-day Crawfordville, Taliaferro County, Georgia. At the time of Alexander Stephens's birth, the farm was part of Wilkes County. Taliaferro County was created in 1825 from land in Greene, Hancock, Oglethorpe, Warren, and Wilkes counties.[4] His father, a native of Pennsylvania, came to Georgia at 12 years of age, in 1795. According to the Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens (Linton Stephens being Alexander Stephens's half-brother), Andrew B. Stephens was "endowed with uncommon intellectual faculties; he had sound practical judgment; he was a safe counselor, sagacious, self-reliant, candid and courageous."[5]

His mother, a Georgia native and sister of Grier's Almanac founder Robert Grier,[6] died in 1812 at the age of 26; Alexander Stephens was only three months old. In the introduction to Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens, there is this about his mother and her family: "Margaret came of folk who had a liking for books, and a turn for law, war, and meteorology."[7] The introduction continues: "In her son's character was a marked blending of parental traits. He [Alexander Stephens] was thrifty, generous, progressive; one of the best lawyers in the land; a reader and collector of books; a close observer of the weather, and father of the Weather Bureau of the United States."[8] In 1814, Andrew B. Stephens married Matilda Lindsay, daughter of Revolutionary War Colonel John Lindsay.[9]

In 1826, when Alexander Stephens was 14 years old, his father, Andrew, and stepmother, Matilda, died only days apart in May of that year. Their deaths caused him and several siblings to be scattered among relatives. He grew up poor and in difficult circumstances. Not long after the deaths of his father and his stepmother, Alexander Stephens was sent to live with his mother's other brother, General Aaron W. Grier, near Raytown (Taliaferro County), Georgia. General Grier had inherited his own father's library, said to be "the largest library in all that part of the country."[10] Alexander Stephens, who read voraciously even as a youth, mentions the library in his "Recollections."

An illustration of Stephens as a young man

Frail but precocious, the young Stephens acquired his continued education through the generosity of several benefactors. One of them was the Presbyterian minister Alexander Hamilton Webster, who presided over a school in Washington (Wilkes County), Georgia. Out of respect for his mentor, Stephens adopted Webster's middle name, Hamilton, as his own. Stephens attended the Franklin College (later the University of Georgia) in Athens, where he was roommates with Crawford W. Long and a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society. He raised funds for Phi Kappa Hall, located on the university campus.[11] Stephens graduated at the top of his class in 1832.

After several unhappy years teaching school, he took up legal studies, passed the bar in 1834, and began a successful career as a lawyer in Crawfordville. During his 32 years of practice, he gained a reputation as a capable defender of the wrongfully accused. None of his clients charged with capital crimes were executed.

Stephens was extremely sickly throughout his life. Though his adult height was 5 feet 7 inches, he often weighed less than 100 pounds.[12]

As his wealth increased, Stephens began acquiring land and slaves. By the time of the Civil War, Stephens owned 34 slaves and several thousand acres. He entered politics in 1836, and was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives, serving there until 1841. In 1842, he was elected to the Georgia senate.

Congressional career

Alexander Stephens

Stephens served in the U.S. House from October 2, 1843, to March 3, 1859, from the 28th Congress through the 35th Congress. In 1843, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Whig, in a special election to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mark A. Cooper.[13] This seat was at-large, as Georgia did not have House Districts until the next year. Stephens was re-elected from the 7th District as a Whig in 1844, 1846, and 1848, as a Unionist in 1851, and again as a Whig (from the 8th District) in 1853. In 1855 and 1857, his re-elections came as a Democrat.

As a national lawmaker during the crucial decades before the Civil War, Stephens was involved in all of the major sectional battles. He began as a moderate defender of slavery but later accepted the prevailing Southern rationale utilized to defend the institution.

Stephens quickly rose to prominence as one of the leading Southern Whigs in the House. He supported the annexation of Texas in 1845. Along with his fellow Whigs, he vehemently opposed the Mexican-American War, and later become an equally vigorous opponent of the Wilmot Proviso, which would have barred the extension of slavery into territories that were acquired after the war. He also controversially tabled the Clayton Compromise, which would have excluded slavery from the Oregon Territory and left the issue of slavery in New Mexico and California to the Supreme Court. This would later nearly kill Stephens when he argued with Judge Francis H. Cone, who stabbed him repeatedly in a fit of anger.[14] Stephens was physically outmatched by his larger assailant, but he remained defiant during the attack, refusing to recant his positions even at the cost of his life. Only the intervention of others saved him. Stephens' wounds were serious, and he returned home to Crawfordville to recover. He and Cone reconciled before Cone's death in 1859.

Stephens and fellow Georgia Representative Robert Toombs campaigned for the election of Zachary Taylor as President in 1848. Both were chagrined and angered when Taylor proved less than pliable on aspects of the Compromise of 1850. Stephens and Toombs both supported the Compromise of 1850 though they opposed the exclusion of slavery from the territories on the theory that such lands belonged to all of the people. The pair returned from the District of Columbia to Georgia to secure support for the measures at home. Both men were instrumental in the drafting and approval of the Georgia Platform, which rallied Unionists throughout the Deep South.

Stephens and Toombs were not only political allies but also lifelong friends. Stephens was described as "a highly sensitive young man of serious and joyless habits of consuming ambition, of poverty-fed pride, and of morbid preoccupation within self," a contrast to the "robust, wealthy, and convivial Toombs. But this strange camaraderie endured with singular accord throughout their lives."[15]

By this time, Stephens had departed the ranks of the Whig party, its northern wing generally not amenable to some Southern interests. Back in Georgia, Stephens, Toombs, and Democratic Representative Howell Cobb formed the Constitutional Union Party. The party overwhelmingly carried the state in the ensuing election and, for the first time, Stephens returned to Congress no longer a Whig. Stephens spent the next few years as a Constitutional Unionist, essentially an independent. He vigorously opposed the dismantling of the Constitutional Union Party when it began crumbling in 1851. Political realities soon forced the Union Democrats in the party to affiliate once more with the national party, and by mid-1852, the combination of both Democrats and Whigs, which had formed a "party" behind the Compromise, had ended.

The sectional issue surged to the forefront again in 1854, when Senator Stephen A. Douglas, from Illinois, moved to organize the Nebraska Territory, all of which lay north of the Missouri Compromise line, in the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This legislation aroused fury in the North because it applied the popular sovereignty principle to the Territory, in violation of the Missouri Compromise. Had it not been for Stephens, the bill would have probably never passed in the House. He employed an obscure House rule to bring the bill to a vote. He later called this "the greatest glory of my life."

From this point on, Stephens voted with the Democrats. Until after 1855, Stephens could not be properly called a Democrat, and even then, he never officially declared it. In this move, Stephens broke irrevocably with many of his former Whig colleagues. When the Whig Party disintegrated after the election of 1852, some Whigs flocked to the short-lived Know-Nothing Party, but Stephens fiercely opposed the Know-Nothings both for their secrecy and their anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic position.

Despite his late arrival in the Democratic Party, Stephens quickly rose through the ranks. He even served as President James Buchanan's floor manager in the House during the fruitless battle for the Lecompton Constitution for Kansas Territory in 1857. He was instrumental in framing the failed English Bill after it became clear that Lecompton would not pass.

Stephens did not seek re-election to Congress in 1858. As sectional peace eroded during the next two years, Stephens became increasingly critical of southern extremists. Although virtually the entire South had spurned Douglas as a traitor to southern rights because he had opposed the Lecompton Constitution and broken with Buchanan, Stephens remained on good terms with Douglas and even served as one of his presidential electors in the election of 1860.

On November 14, 1860, Stephens delivered a speech entitled "The Assertions of a Secessionist". He said,

On the eve of the outbreak of the American Civil War, he counseled delay in moving militarily against U.S.-held Fort Sumter and Pickens so that the Confederacy could build up its forces and stock resources.[17]

Vice President of the Confederate States

In 1861, Stephens was elected as a delegate to the Georgia Secession Convention to decide Georgia's response to the election of Abraham Lincoln. During the convention, as well as during the 1860 presidential campaign, Stephens, who came to be known as the sage of Liberty Hall,[18] called for the South to remain loyal to the Union, likening it to a leaking but fixable boat. During the convention he reminded his fellow delegates that Republicans were a minority in Congress (especially in the Senate) and, even with a Republican President, they would be forced to compromise just as the two sections had for decades. Because the Supreme Court had voted 7–2 in the Dred Scott case, it would take decades of Senate-approved appointments to reverse it. He voted against secession in the convention[19] but asserted the right to secede if the federal government continued allowing northern states to nullify the Fugitive Slave Law with "personal liberty laws." He was elected to the Confederate Congress and was chosen by the Congress as Vice President of the provisional government.[20] He was then elected Vice President of the Confederacy in February 1861. He took the provisional oath of office on February 11, 1861, then the 'full term' oath of office on February 22, 1862 and served until his arrest on May 11, 1865. Stephens officially served in office eight days longer than President Jefferson Davis; he took his oath seven days before Davis's inauguration and was captured the day after Davis.

Stephens in his later years

On March 21, 1861, Stephens gave his famous Cornerstone Speech in Savannah, Georgia. In it he declared that slavery was the natural condition of blacks and the foundation of the Confederacy. He declared that relative to the U.S. Constitution, "Our new Government is founded upon exactly the opposite ideas; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition."[21]

In 1862, Stephens first publicly expressed his opposition to the Davis administration.[22] Throughout the war he denounced many of the president's policies, including conscription, suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, impressment, various financial and taxation policies, and Davis's military strategy.[23]

Stephens depicted on a 1862 Confederate States of America $20 banknote

In mid-1863, Davis dispatched Stephens on a fruitless mission to Washington to discuss prisoner exchanges, but the Union victory of Gettysburg made the Lincoln Administration refuse to receive him. As the war continued and the fortunes of the Confederacy sank lower, Stephens became more outspoken in his opposition to the administration. On March 16, 1864, Stephens delivered a speech[24] to the Georgia Legislature that was widely reported in both the North and the South. In it, he excoriated the Davis Administration for its support of conscription and suspension of habeas corpus, and supported a block of resolutions aimed at securing peace. From then until the end of the war, as he continued to press for actions aimed at bringing about peace, his relations with Davis, never warm to begin with, turned completely sour.

On February 3, 1865, he was one of three Confederate commissioners who met with Lincoln on the steamer River Queen at the Hampton Roads Conference, a fruitless effort to discuss measures to bring an end to the fight. Stephens and Lincoln had been close friends and Whig political allies in the 1840s.[25] Although peace terms were not reached, Lincoln did agree to look into the whereabouts of Stephens's nephew, Confederate Lieutenant John A. Stephens. When Lincoln returned to Washington, he ordered the release of Lieutenant Stephens.[26]

Later life and death

John White Alexander's portrait of Alexander Stephens, the year he died, 1883

Stephens was arrested at his home in Crawfordville, on May 11, 1865. He was imprisoned in Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, for five months until October 1865.[27] In 1866, he was elected to the United States Senate by the first legislature convened under the new Georgia State Constitution, but was not allowed to take his seat because of restrictions on former Confederates.

In 1873, Stephens was elected US Representative as a Democrat from the 8th District to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Ambrose R. Wright. Stephens was subsequently re-elected to the 8th District as an Independent Democrat in 1874, 1876, and 1878, and as a Democrat again in 1880.[28] He served in the 43rd through 47th Congresses, from December 1, 1873 until his resignation on November 4, 1882. On that date, he was elected and took office as Governor of Georgia.[29] His tenure as governor proved brief; Stephens died on March 4, 1883, four months after taking office.[30]

Almost all of his former slaves continued to work for him, often for little or no money;[31] whether this decision was voluntary or the result of few other options existing for former slaves in the Deep South is difficult to determine.[32] These servants were with him upon his death. Although old and infirm, Stephens continued to work on his house and plantation. According to a former slave, a gate fell on Stephens while he and another black servant were repairing it, "and he was crippled and lamed up from that time on till he died." The veracity of this rumor is difficult to determine as the cited ex-slave was not present for the event.[33]

Works

  • A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States (1867–70, 2 vol.) and History of the United States (1871 and 1883).[34][35]

Legacy

Alexander Stephens gravesite memorial, at Liberty Hall, Crawfordville, Georgia

He is pictured on the CSA $20.00 banknote (3rd, 5th, 6th, and 7th issues).

Stephens County, Georgia, and Stephens County, Texas, bear his name, as does A. H. Stephens Historic Park, a state park near Crawfordville.

A collection of Stephens's personal papers has been digitized and is available at the Rubenstein Library, Duke University.[36]

A sculpture of Stephens appears in the National Statuary Hall Collection, representing one of two figures from Georgia history, the other being Crawford W. Long. There have been calls to replace Stephens' sculpture in the collection with that of other Georgians, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. or Ray Charles Robinson.[37]

According to Bruce Catton, he was "given one of the most haunting nicknames ever worn by an American politician: 'The Little Pale Star from Georgia.'"[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ Simpson, Brooks D. (July 22, 2015). "The Future of Stone Mountain". Crossroads. WordPress. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2016. Stephens, was not a big fan of his superior. 
  2. ^ Memoirs of Georgia (Atlanta: Southern Historical Association, 1895), Vol. I, p. 238.
  3. ^ Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens (Atlanta: Dodson & Scott, 1877), p. 3.
  4. ^ "Taliaferro County | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 
  5. ^ Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens, p. 3.
  6. ^ "Grier's Almanac | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2013-08-13. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 
  7. ^ Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens: His Diary Kept When a Prisoner... (New York: Doubleday, 1910), p. 3.
  8. ^ Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens, pp. 3–4.
  9. ^ Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens, pp. 3–4.
  10. ^ Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens, p.3.
  11. ^ "Phi Kappa Hall (University of Georgia)". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  12. ^ James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (New York: Ballantine Books, 1989), p. 74, gives his weight as 90 pounds.
  13. ^ "Memorandum, Alexander H. Stephens elected to House of Representatives, Milledgeville, Georgia, 1843". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  14. ^ "Alexander Stephens". Ourgeorgiahistory.com. 1905-08-18. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 
  15. ^ William Y. Thompson, Robert Toombs of Georgia (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966, p. 13
  16. ^ Stephens, Alexander (1860). The Assertions of a Secessionist. New York: Loyal Publication Society. p. 6. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  17. ^ Allan Nevins, The Improvised War, 1861–1862 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1959), p. 73.
  18. ^ Candler, Allen Daniel (1909). The Confederate records of the State of Georgia, Volume 1. Atlanta, GA: C. P. Byrd publishing. ISBN 978-1147068887. p. 16. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  19. ^ "Ordinance of Secession of the State of Georgia". Hargrett Rare Book & Manuscript Library. University of Georgia Libraries. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  20. ^ "Election ballot from Confederate Presidential election, 1861". America's Turning Point: Documenting the Civil War Experience in Georgia, Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  21. ^ "Behind the Jeffersonian Veneer". Reason.com. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 
  22. ^ Schott, Thomas E. (1988). Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia. pp. 357 ff. 
  23. ^ Eicher, David J. (January 2008). "How the Confederacy Fought Itself". Civil War Times. 46 (10). Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  24. ^ Stephens, Alexander Hamilton. "The Great Speech of Hon. A.H. Stephens, Delivered Before the Georgia Legislature, on Wednesday Night, March 16th, 1864". Documenting the American South. University of North Carolina. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  25. ^ Chris DeRose (2013). Congressman Lincoln. Simon and Schuster. p. 116. ISBN 9781451695151. 
  26. ^ Lincoln, Abraham. "Abraham Lincoln Letter to Alexander Stephens". American Civil War, Hargrett Rare Book & Manuscript Library. University of Georgia Libraries. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  27. ^ Stephens, Alexander H. (1971). Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens; his diary kept when a prisoner at Fort Warren, Boston Harbour, 1865. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 9780807122686. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  28. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. pp. 126–135. ISBN 978-0029201701. 
  29. ^ "Governor Alexander Stephens inauguration parade, 1889". Lane Brothers Commercial Photographers Photographic Collection, 1920-1976. Photographic Collection, Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  30. ^ "[Photograph of Governor Alex H. Stephens's funeral, Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, 1885 Mar. 8]". Georgia Archives. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  31. ^ Brady, Matthew. "[Photograph of Alexander H. Stephens, Washington D.C., 1879 May 7]". Vanishing Georgia. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  32. ^ American Experience: Reconstruction https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/sharecrop/sf_economy.html#c accessdate=December 2, 2015
  33. ^ Hornsby, Sadie B. (August 4, 1938). Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936–1938. Interview with Georgia Baker. Library of Congress. p. 51. Retrieved February 15, 2011. 
  34. ^ A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States: Vol. I (1868)
  35. ^ A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States: Vol. II (1870)
  36. ^ Alexander H. Stephens Papers, 1823–1954, Rubenstein Library, Duke University 
  37. ^ Yarbrough, Dick (July 25, 2015). "Dick Yarbrough: It's time to make peace over symbols". The Gainesville Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015. 
  38. ^ Catton, Bruce, The Coming Fury, p 46. Pocket Books, New York. 1961

Bibliography

  • Rudolph R. von Abele, Alexander H. Stephens: A Biography (1946)
  • Henry Cleveland, Alexander H. Stephens in Public and Private, with Letters and Speeches (1866)
  • William C. Davis, The Union that Shaped the Confederacy: Robert Toombs & Alexander H. Stephens (2002)
  • Richard Malcolm Johnston & William Hand Browne, Life of Alexander H. Stephens (1878).
  • Louis Pendleton, Alexander H. Stephens (1908)
  • Thomas E. Schott, Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia: A Biography (1988)
  • W. P. Trent, Southern Statesmen of the Old Régime (1897)
  • Jon L. Wakelyn, Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy
  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962) ch 11, on his book
  • Biographical article from Harper's Weekly, February 23, 1861.

External links


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