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The Paleolithic
Pliocene (before Homo)
Stone Age

Ahmarian culture[1][2][3][4][5][6] was a Paleolithic archeological industry in Levant dated at 46,000-42,000 BP and thought to be related to Levantine Emiran and younger European Aurignacian cultures. Ahmarian is considered to be the likely source of first modern humans who migrated to Europe to form Aurignacian culture known as Cro-Magnons. Although European Bohunician culture that may be linked to Emiran and Ahmarian itself and dated at 48,000 BP may predate it.[7] There is also a claim that it is roughly contemporary with the Aurignacian and the Gravettian cultures of Europe, all emerging prior to the Athlitian, which was also contemporary with the Solutrean and Magdalenian cultures of Western Europe.[8]

The technical knowledge of the Ahmarian culture, along with the other lithic industries, is considered the likely source of the abrupt and rapid takeover of the world in all directions as evidenced by the crossing of the Bering Strait towards America.[9] Ahmarian technology, which included the complex of blade/bladelet-knapping techniques is also linked to the tools used by the hunter-gatherers of south-western Asia.[10]


  1. ^ "Archaeologists carbon dated a cave in Israel to reveal details about the two first modern human cultures". 28 December 2017.
  2. ^ Kadowaki, Seiji; Omori, Takayuki; Nishiaki, Yoshihiro (2015). "Variability in Early Ahmarian lithic technology and its implications for the model of a Levantine origin of the Protoaurignacian". Journal of Human Evolution. 82: 67–87. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.02.017. PMID 25924809.
  3. ^ Goring-Morris, Nigel; Belfer-Cohen, Anna (2018). "The Ahmarian in the Context of the Earlier Upper Palaeolithic in the Near East". The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archeology of the Levant and Beyond. pp. 87–104. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-6826-3_7. ISBN 978-981-10-6825-6.
  4. ^ Gilead, Isaac (1991). "The Upper Paleolithic period in the Levant". Journal of World Prehistory. 5 (2): 105–154. doi:10.1007/BF00974677.
  5. ^ Akazawa, Takeru; Nishiaki, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Kenichi (16 December 2013). "Dynamics of Learning in Neanderthals and Modern Humans Volume 1: Cultural Perspectives". Springer Science & Business Media – via Google Books.
  6. ^ https://books.google.pl/books?id=KzZCDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=caucasus+imereti+industry&source=bl&ots=--EAGrtFCs&sig=7M9-bWmwtk5GmJ97pW5Z5t0T3D0&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiM4pqNoYzZAhXN2VMKHc8hDkUQ6AEIbzAN#v=onepage&q=caucasus%20imereti%20industry&f=false
  7. ^ Hoffecker, J. F (2009). "The spread of modern humans in Europe". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (38): 16040–16045. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903446106. PMC 2752585.
  8. ^ Avi-Yonah, Michael (2001). A History of Israel and the Holy Land. New York: Continuum. p. 20. ISBN 0826413226.
  9. ^ Bachenheimer, Avi (2016). Gobekli Tepe: An Introduction to the World's Oldest Temple (Revised Edition). San Francisco, CA: Blurb, Incorporated. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9781366700940.
  10. ^ De Laet, S.J.; Dani, A.H.; Lorenzo, J.L.; Nunoo, R.B. (1994). History of Humanity: Prehistory and the beginnings of civilization. London: Routledge. p. 244. ISBN 0415093058.

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