Ages of consent in Asia

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The legal age of consent for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across Asia, from age 12 to 21. The specific activity engaged in or the gender of its participants can also be affected by the law. Below is a discussion of the various laws dealing with this subject. The highlighted age refers to an age at or above which an individual can engage in unfettered sexual relations with another who is also at or above that age. Other variables, such as homosexual relations or close in age exceptions, may exist, and are noted when relevant, for example in Indonesia.

The below is a list of all jurisdictions in Asia as listed in List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia.

Consent by country

Country Age of consent
Afghanistan Afghanistan Must be married
Armenia Armenia 16
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 16
Bahrain Bahrain 21
Bangladesh Bangladesh 14
Bhutan Bhutan 18
Brunei Brunei 16
Cambodia Cambodia 15
China China 14
 Cyprus 17
East Timor East Timor 14
 Egypt 18
State of Palestine Palestine: Gaza Strip Must be married
Georgia (country) Georgia 16
Hong Kong Hong Kong 16
India India 18
Indonesia Indonesia 18, according to the Child Protection Act
Iran Iran Must be married
Iraq Iraq 15
Israel Israel 16, involving penetration
Japan Japan 13
Jordan Jordan 16
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 16
North Korea North Korea 15
South Korea South Korea 13
Kuwait Kuwait Must be married
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 16
Laos Laos 15
Lebanon Lebanon 18
Macau Macau 14
Malaysia Malaysia 16
Maldives Maldives Must be married
Mongolia Mongolia 16
Myanmar Myanmar 14
Nepal Nepal 16
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus 16
Oman Oman Must be married
Pakistan Pakistan Must be married
Philippines Philippines 12
18 for consensual sex (refer to Philippines section for details)
Qatar Qatar Must be married
Russia Russia 16
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Must be married
Singapore Singapore 16
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 16
Syria Syria 15
Taiwan Taiwan 16
Tajikistan Tajikistan 16
Thailand Thailand 18
Turkey Turkey 18
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 16
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Must be married
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 16
Vietnam Vietnam 16
State of Palestine Palestine: West Bank 16
Yemen Yemen Must be married

Afghanistan

Sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in Afghanistan. The minimum age of marriage is 18 for men and 16 for women.[1][2]

Bahrain

The age of consent in Bahrain is 21 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[3] According to Article 345 [s amended by Legislative Decree n. 7, 1985] ,The penalty of imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years will be the punishment for anyone who has sex with a woman who is older than 14, but has not yet reached the age of sixteen, with consent. The penalty of imprisonment exceeding 10 years is the sentence for anyone who has sex with a woman who is over sixteen years but less than twenty one years, with consent.

This age of consent applies to women who marry without the permission of their fathers.[4]

Bangladesh

The Penal Code of Bangladesh considers 14 years as the age of consent.[5]

Bhutan

The age of consent in Bhutan is 18 regardless of gender or sexual orientation, according to Article 183 of the Penal Code of Bhutan.[6]

Brunei

The age of consent in Brunei is 16.

Article 2 of this Act determines the offence as follows: Any person who has or attempts to have carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of sixteen (16) years except by way of marriage, shall be guilty of an offence: Penalty, imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than 2 years and not more than 7 years and to whipping not exceeding 24 strokes of the rattan in the case of an adult or 12 strokes of the rattan in the case of a youthful offender.[7]

Cambodia

The age of consent in Cambodia is 15 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[8] The age of consent in this country is determined by Article 8, of Chapter 4 (Debauchery) of the Law on Suppression of the Kidnapping, Trafficking, and Exploitation of Human Beings, which has been specifically enacted to prohibit sex with children under 15. The law prohibits "debauchery" with a child under 15, and this term (the original Cambodian word is “anacha”) has been interpreted by courts to forbid any form of sexual conduct (both consensual and non-consensual; both 'ordinary' sex and paid sex) with a child under 15. This is the main legal tool used to prosecute foreigners engaging in child sex tourism in Cambodia.[9][10][11][12]

Article 8 of the 'Law on Suppression of the Kidnapping, Trafficking, and Exploitation of Human Beings' states, Any person who commits acts of debauchery involving a minor below 15 years old, even if there is consent from the concerned minor, or even if the person has bought such minor from someone else or from a pimp, shall be punished by ten (10) to twenty (20) years in prison. In case of repeat offenses, the maximum punishment term shall be applied.[13]

Mainland China

In Mainland China, the age of consent for sexual activity is 14 years, regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[14] Chinese law defines statutory rape as having sex with a girl who is less than fourteen years of age. A five-year prison sentence and fine may result if the girl under 14 years of age was acting as a prostitute.[15] On August 2015, the law concerning underage prostitutes was repealed. The Statutory rape law now applies to underage prostitution as well.[16]

East Timor

The age of consent in East Timor is 14 regardless of gender or sexual orientation, per Article 177. However, sex acts with an adolescent aged 14–15 years are illegal if an adult practices them with the adolescent by "taking advantage of the inexperience" of that adolescent. (Article 178).[17]

Article 177. Sexual abuse of a minor:

  1. Any person who practices vaginal, anal or oral coitus with a minor aged less than 14 years is punishable with 5 to 20 years' imprisonment.
  2. Any person who practices any act of sexual relief with a minor aged less than 14 years is punishable with 5 to 15 years' imprisonment.

Article 178. Sexual acts with an adolescent:

  1. Any person who, being an adult and apart from situations provided in this section, practices any relevant sexual act with a minor aged between 14 and 16 years, taking advantage of the inexperience of the same, is punishable with up to 5 years' imprisonment.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong the age of consent for sexual activity is 16 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[18] However, the age of consent for a female receiving anal sex is 21.[19]

Under s.124 of the Crimes Ordinance (Cap.200),[18] a man who has unlawful sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 16 shall be liable to imprisonment for 5 years. Under s.123 of the Crimes Ordinance,[20] a man who has unlawful sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 13 shall be liable to imprisonment for life.

Under s.122 of the Crimes Ordinance,[21] a person under the age of 16 cannot in law give any consent which would prevent an act being an assault for the purposes of indecent assault. Hence, a woman who has sexual activity with a boy or a girl under 16 will be prosecuted under this section.

The previous position regarding homosexual couples is contained in s.118C which provides that a man who commits or suffers to commit buggery with a man under the age of 21 is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for life.[22] However, this section was struck down as unconstitutional in Leung TC William Roy v Secretary for Justice.[23] Hence, the age of consent between two males have been effectively equalized with that between a male and a female, which is 16.

Prior to 2012 there was a presumption that a male minor under 14 could not consent to sexual intercourse under any circumstances. The law was changed after a 13-year-old boy attacked a 5-year-old girl at a Chai Wan hospital ward; the prosecution was unable to convict him of rape, instead only able to do so for indecent assault. In 2015 an 11-year-old boy and a 13-year-old boy were arrested after they were found having sex with an 11-year-old girl. Under the new laws they have the possibility of having the maximum sentence of life in prison.[24]

India

India's age of consent for sex is 18 under the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013.[25]

In 1892, the marital rape and subsequent death of a 10-year-old girl, Phulmoni Dasi, caused the age of consent to be raised from 10 to 12. In 1949, it was raised to 16 after agitation from women groups about the adverse effect of early pregnancy. In 1982, it was again raised to 16.[26] On 3 April 2014 the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 came into effect which raised the legal permissible age for sexual consent from 16 to 18. Although, the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 initially sought to lower the age to 16, it was set at 18 due to political pressure from conservative parties.[27] Section 375 reads: A man is said to commit "rape" if he (...) Sixthly — With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age.[28]

Legal action on Marital Rape

Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 disallows any such sexual relationships and puts such crimes within marriages as an aggravated offense. A Public Interest Litigation filled by Independent Thought, an organization working on child rights law, was heard in the Supreme Court of India for declaring the exception allowing marital rape within prohibited child marriages as unconstitutional: Independent Thought vs. Union of India [W.P(civil) 382 of 2013]. In the judgment, delivered on October 11, the Supreme Court bench consisting of Justices Madan B. Lokur and Deepak Gupta read down Exception 2 to Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) to hold that sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife if she is below 18 years of age would amount to rape.[citation needed]

The Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, an old British-era law, bans "carnal intercourse against the order of nature". It was used to prosecute people for having anal or oral sex, although prosecutions are rare. The law was constitutionally challenged at the Delhi High Court in 2009 for violating the human rights of sexual minorities. But, after the Delhi High Court declared some parts of the law unconstitutional on the issue, the age of consent for consensual homosexual sex was set at 18.[29] However, on 11 December 2013, the Supreme Court of India overturned the verdict.[30]

Indonesia

According to the Indonesian Penal Code article 287, the age of consent in Indonesia is 15 years old.[31] The age of consent is the minimum age at which an individual is considered legally old enough to consent to participation in sexual activity. Individuals aged 14 or younger in Indonesia are not legally able to consent to sexual activity, and such activity may result in prosecution for statutory rape or the equivalent local law.

Even though the age of consent is 15 years old, the offender can only be charged and prosecuted if a legal complaint is lodged to the law enforcement. Exception to this law is when the age of the victim is under 12 years old, or under certain circumstances such as bodily injury or incest.

However, under the Child Protection Act, the age of consent could be raised to 18.[32] The argument used is that sexual acts with a child could result in bodily and mental injury, while the definition of a child is anyone who is under 18 years old. A reported court verdict using the Child Protection Act was done in 2009 against an Australian national.[33]

Iran

Sexuality outside marriage is illegal in Iran.[34][35] The minimum age of marriage in Iran is 18 for men and 15 for women.[36][37] Ways around these regulations include temporary marriages (Nikah mut‘ah).[38] With the permission of a court girls may marry at a younger age; during 2010 as many as 42,000 children aged between 10 and 14 were married,[39] and 716 girls younger than 10 had wed.[40]

Iraq

The age of consent in Iraq is 18. "Any person who sexually assaults a boy or girl under the age of 18 without the use of force, menaces or deception is punishable by detention..."

"Any person who has sexual intercourse with a female relative to the third generation under the age of 15 with her consent and the offence leads to her death, to pregnancy or loss of virginity [is punishable by death]."[41]

However, the age of consent might change in the future to age nine for females and 15 for males.[42][43] However, some reporters believe that the draft suggests that there will not be an age of consent.[44][45][46]

Israel

According to the Israeli Penal Code of 1977 the age of consent in Israel is 16 regardless of gender or sexual orientation, for any form of sexual relations involving penetration (unless the person above 16 is the one being penetrated - in that case the age of consent is 14). In all cases that don't involve penetration, the age of consent is 14 (for both heterosexual and homosexual activities ). A special case arises when a person aged 14 or 15 had sexual relations with an older partner; in this case the older partner would be exempt of criminal liability if three conditions are met: the age difference between the partners was less than three years, the younger partner gave consent and the act was done out of "regular friendly relations" and without the abuse of power.

Japan

In Japan, the Japanese Penal Code sets a minimal age of consent of 13 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[47] However, the Children Welfare Act chapter 34 forbids any act of "fornication" (淫行) with children (here defined as anyone under 18 years of age)[48] with prefectures and districts specifying further details in (largely similar) "obscenity ordinances" (淫行条例) like adding exemptions for sex in the context of a sincere romantic relationship (typically determined by parental approval).[49]

There are two territories of Japan that have their own local age of consent laws — Marcus Islands and Okinotori Islands — with an age of consent of 13. These islands are small and unpopulated.[50]

Jordan

The age of consent in Jordan is 16 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[51]

Kuwait

Sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in Kuwait.[52][53] The marriageable age is 15 for girls and 17 for boys.[53]

Kyrgyzstan

The age of consent in Kyrgyzstan is 16.[54]

Laos

The age of consent in Laos is 15 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[55] Article 129 of the Laos Penal Code provides for a penalty of 1–5 years' imprisonment and a fine of 2–5 million kip.[56]

Lebanon

The age of consent for sex in Lebanon is 18 for both males and females in regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[57]

Article 505 of the Penal Code states, "Whoever commits a sexual act with a minor of less than fifteen (15) years, shall be punished with hard labor of up to fifteen (15) years. This penalty shall be for a minimum of five (5) years, if the victim has not attained the age of twelve (12) years. And whoever commits a sexual act with a minor aged more than fifteen (15) years but less than eighteen (18) years, shall be punished by imprisonment for a period varying between 2 months and 2 years."[citation needed]

Homosexuality has been a serious crime since 2014.[58]

Macau

The general age of consent in Macau is 14, regardless of gender or sexual orientation. Although people under the age of 18 years are considered minors, the Criminal Code does not criminalize sex with people older than 16 years of age (except in the specific case of minors aged 16 to 18 years old entrusted to an adult for education or assistance purposes whom have abused such position (article 167/1(b) of the Macau Criminal Code)).

Sex with minors younger than 14 years old is more severely punished (1 to 8 years' imprisonment) than with minors aged 14 to 16 years old (up to 4 years' imprisonment if the perpetrator abused the minor's inexperience). Anal sex, irrespective of the gender or orientation of the participants (male-male, female-female, male-female), has an aggravated punishment (3 to 10 years of jail if practiced with a minor under the age of 14 and up to 4 years if practiced with an older minor).[59]

Malaysia

The age of consent for heterosexual sex in Malaysia is 16 for both sexes[60] as homosexual activity in Malaysia is illegal.

Malaysian Penal Code (Act 574), Section 375

Rape. A man is said to commit "rape" who, except in the case hereinafter excepted, has sexual intercourse with a woman under circumstances falling under any of the following descriptions: (...) Sixthly – With or without her consent, when she is under sixteen years of age.[61]

Maldives

Sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in Maldives. The legal age of marriage is 18 for both males and females. As Maldivians follow the Islamic Shariah, girls below the age of 18 can get married with parental consent. Done otherwise, it would be a crime. Engaging in any type of sexual interaction is illegal before marriage.

Mongolia

The age of consent in Mongolia is 16, regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[62]

Myanmar

The 1860 Indian Penal Code was also inherited in Myanmar, making the age of consent 14 there as well.

Section 375.[63]

A man is said to commit "rape" who, except in the case hereinafter excepted, has sexual intercourse with a woman under circumstances falling under any of the five following descriptions:

First — Against her will.

Secondly — Without her consent.

Thirdly — With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her in fear of death or hurt.

Fourthly – With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband, and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.

FifthlyWith or without her consent, when she is under fourteen years.

Nepal

The age of consent in Nepal is 18 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[64]

North Korea

The age of consent in North Korea is 15. Article 153 of the criminal law states that a man who has sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 15 shall be "punished gravely."[65]

Oman

Sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in Oman.[66]

Pakistan

Sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in Pakistan.[67]

Palestinian Territories

Gaza Strip

In the Gaza Strip, any kind of sexual activity outside marriage is illegal.[68]

West Bank

The age of sexual consent is the same as in Jordanian Article 306 of the Penal Code. Consensual sex is legal at the age of 16 years.[69]

Philippines

The minimum age for consensual sex is 12 years. United States' Country Reports on Human Rights Practices lists the age of consent of Philippines as 12.[70] Sexual intercourse with a person under the age of 12 is defined as rape, under Chapter 3, Article 266 of the Anti-Rape Law of 1997.[71]

The statutory rape law criminalizes sex with minors under age 12 and sex with a child under age 18 involving force, threat, or intimidation. The maximum penalty for child rape is 40 years in prison plus a lifetime bar from political office. As of August the PNP reported 2,750 cases of child rape. The production, possession, and distribution of child pornography are illegal, and penalties range from one month to life in prison plus fines from 50,000 to five million pesos ($1,000 to $100,000), depending on the gravity of the offense.[70]

In regard to children under the age of 18, as described earlier in the act as an individual under the age of 18, the law reads:

Article III, Section 5. Child Prostitution and Other Sexual Abuse .
Children, whether male or female, who for money, profit, or any other consideration or due to the coercion or influence of any adult, syndicate or group, indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct, are deemed to be children exploited in prostitution and other sexual abuse.[72]

Qatar

Any kind of sexual activity outside marriage is illegal.[73] According to the Family Act, the minimum age of marriage is 18 for boys and 16 for girls. The court may allow a marriage below the minimum age, but it requires the consent of the legal guardian as well as the consent of the two persons to be married.

Saudi Arabia

Any kind of sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in Saudi Arabia. As of 2013, age of consent for marriage was expected to be set to 18,[74] but this was opposed by the grand mufti.[75] In 2013, no restrictions regarding age existed.[76]

Singapore

The age of consent in Singapore is 16 for all opposite-sex activity and male and female same-sex sexual activity: "Section 140: (1) Any person who – (...) (i) has carnal connection with any girl below the age of 16 years except by way of marriage (...) – shall be guilty of an offence."[77]

Under section 377A (outrages on decency) in the Penal Code states: "Any male person who, in public or private, commits, or abets the commission of, or procures or attempts to procure the commission by any male person of, any act of gross indecency with another male person, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 2 years". This means that all male same-sex sexual activity (including mutual masturbation, oral or anal sex) is still illegal and the punishment is up to two (2) years jail, based on the Offences Against The Person Act 1861.

South Korea

The age of consent in South Korea is 13. However, No one shall commit any of the following acts: having a child engage in lewd acts or arranging such acts, or committing sexual harassment or sexual abuse against a child that may make him/her feel sexually ashamed according to Article 17 of Child Welfare Act [1][2]. The term "child" means a person who is under 18 years of age

Sri Lanka

The age of consent in Sri Lanka is 16. However, girls belonging to Sri Lanka's Moor and Malay minorities representing approximately 10% of the national population are allowed to marry after 12 years of age and below the age of 12 with the approval of the religious leader, Moulavi and either father, brother, uncle, grandfather.

363. A man is said to commit "rape" who enactment has sexual intercourse with, a woman under circumstances falling under any of the following descriptions:

(...)

(e) with or without her consent when she is under sixteen years of age, unless the woman is his wife who is over twelve years of age and is not judicially separated from the man.[78]

365B. (1) Grave sexual abuse is committed any person who, for sexual gratification, does any act, by the use of his genitals or any other part of the human body or any Instrument on any orifice or part of the body of any other person, being an act which does not amount to rape under section 363, in circumstances falling under any of the following descriptions, that is to say:

(a) without the consent of the other person;

(aa) with or without the consent of the other person when the other person is under sixteen years of age;

(...)[79]

Syria

The age of consent in Syria is 15, per Article 491.

Article 491:

1. Every person who has sexual intercourse with a minor under 15 years of age shall be liable to a term of nine years' imprisonment at hard labour.

2. The said term shall be not less than 15 years if the child is under 12 years of age.

Taiwan

The age of consent in Taiwan is 16 regardless of sex. The sentence is reduced or exempted if the offender is under 19. If the offender is under 18, it's an offense indictable only upon a complaint.[80]

Tajikistan

The age of consent in Tajikistan is 16, as specified in article 141 of the Criminal Code. The penalty is specified as deprivation of freedom for 2 to 5 years.[81]

Article 141. Sexual Intercourse And Other Actions of Sexual Character With an Individual Under 16 Years of Age

"(1) Sexual intercourse, homosexuality or lesbianism committed by an individual at the age of 18 years with an individual under 16 years of age when there are no elements of the crime stipulated by Article 138 and Article 139 of the present Code, is punishable by deprivation of freedom for a period of 2 to 5 years."

It should be noted, however, that articles 138 and 139 provide harsher penalties for Rape and Forcible sex against minors, including the possible death penalty for rape of a girl under 14.

Thailand

The age of consent in Thailand is 15 regardless of gender or sexual orientation, as specified by article 279 of the Thai Criminal Code. The current legislation applies to all regardless of gender or sexual orientation.

However, parts of the Prevention and Suppression of Prostitution Act, which disallow any sexual contact with prostitutes under the age of 18, are widely interpreted by some local authorities to cover sexual acts classed as "obscenity for personal gratification". Also, from the Penal Code Amendment Actof 1997 Section 283bis, having sex with an adolescent under 18 is a compoundable offense even with the consent of that person. The parent or the adolescent may file charges against the other side if they later regret their own action. This ostensibly makes the Thai unfettered age of consent 18.

A high-profile example of this application of the law was a statutory rape charge filed against the lead singer of the Thai band Big Ass for allegedly having had sex with a (then) 16-year-old girl. The charge was filed by the girl after the singer refused to take responsibility for her baby. The singer has since been cleared of being the baby's father due to the results of a paternity test and he received 2 years suspended sentence.[82][83]

Turkmenistan

The age of consent in Turkmenistan is 16.[84]

United Arab Emirates

Sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in the UAE.[85][86]

Uzbekistan

The age of consent in Uzbekistan is 16 for heterosexual males (oral sex for homosexual males) and both lesbian and heterosexual females.[87] Only male homosexual anal intercourse is punishable with imprisonment for up to three years (called Besoqolbozlik).[88]

Sexual relations with a person under sixteen (16) years of age, Clause 128 of the Criminal Code: (1) A sexual relation or satisfaction of sex requirements in the unnatural form with a person who was obviously less than sixteen (16) years old, shall be punished by corrective labour measures for up to two (2) years or by the arrest up to six (6) months, or with imprisonment for up to three (3) years.[89]

Vietnam

The Penal Code and several news sources indicate that the age of consent in Vietnam is 16 regardless of gender or sexual orientation.[90][91] Several other sources indicate that the age of consent is 18.[92][93]

Article 115 No. 1 states that, if an adult has had sexual intercourse with children aged from full 13 to under 16, shall be sentenced to between one and five years of imprisonment.[94] In 2009, this article was amended to remove capital punishment.[95] Article 112 Those who rape children aged between full 13 years and under 16 years shall be sentenced to between seven and fifteen years of imprisonment.[96]

Article 111.- Rape
4. Committing rape against a juvenile aged between full 16 and under 18 years old, the offenders shall be sentenced to between five and ten years of imprisonment.
Article 112.- Rape against children
1. Those who rape children aged between full 13 years and under 16 years shall be sentenced to between seven and fifteen years of imprisonment.
Article 113.- Forcible sexual intercourse
1. Those who employ trickery to induce persons dependent on them or persons being in dire straits to have sexual intercourse with them against their will shall be sentenced to between six months and five years of imprisonment.
Article 114.- Forcible sexual intercourse with children
1. Those who have forcible sexual intercourse with children aged from full 13 years to under 16 years shall be sentenced to between five and ten years of imprisonment.[96]

Yemen

Any kind of sexual activity outside marriage is illegal in Yemen. Until recently, Yemeni law set the age of consent at 15. But tribal customs often trump the law. In practice, "Yemeni law allows girls of any age to wed, but it forbids sex with them until the indefinite time they’re 'suitable for sexual intercourse.'"[97] In 1999, the minimum marriage age of fifteen for women, rarely enforced, was abolished; the onset of puberty, interpreted by ulama to be at the age of nine, was set as a requirement for consummation of marriage.[98]

In April 2008, the case of Nujood Ali, a 10-year-old girl who successfully obtained a divorce, sparked headlines around the world, and prompted calls to raise the legal age for marriage to 18.[99] Later in 2008, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood proposed to define the minimum age for marriage at 18 years. The law was passed in April 2009, but dropped the following day following maneuvers by opposing parliamentarians. Negotiations to pass the legislation continue.[100] In September 2013, an 8-year-old girl died due to internal injuries caused by sexual intercourse with a 40-year-old man, after their arranged wedding.[101][102]

See also

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