African Union Mission to Somalia

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African Union Mission in Somalia
Participant in the Somali Civil War
Map of Somalia within the African Union
Map of Somalia within the African Union
Active February 2007 – present
(10 years, 9 months, 3 weeks and 6 days)
Leaders Francisco Caetano Jose Madeira (Mission Head)
Lt. Gen. Osman Noor Soubagleh (Force Commander)
Headquarters Mogadishu
Area of operations Central and southern Somalia
Size Approx. 22,000
Originated as IGASOM
Allies Somalia Federal government of Somalia
Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a
Raskamboni movement
Opponents al-Shabaab
ARS (dis)
Hizbul Islam (dis)
Al-Qaeda
Website amisom-au.org

The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) is an active, regional peacekeeping mission operated by the African Union with the approval of the United Nations in Somalia. It is mandated to support transitional governmental structures, implement a national security plan, train the Somali security forces, and to assist in creating a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid.[1] As part of its duties, AMISOM also supports the Federal Government of Somalia's forces in their battle against Al-Shabaab militants.

AMISOM was created by the African Union's Peace and Security Council on 19 January 2007 with an initial six-month mandate.[2] On 21 February 2007 the United Nations Security Council approved the mission's mandate.[3] Subsequent six-monthly renewals of AMISOM's mandate by the African Union Peace and Security Council have also been authorised by the United Nations Security Council.[4][5]

The duration of AMISOM's mandate has been extended in each period that it has been up for review, lastly in October 2014. The current mandate expired on 30 November 2015.[needs update] Until that time its maximum allowed strength was 22,126 troops.[6]

In August 2014, the Somali government assisted by AMISOM launched Operation Indian Ocean to clean up the remaining Al-Shabaab-held pockets in the countryside.[7]

Background

Burundian troops preparing to deploy to Somalia, 2006

AMISOM replaced and subsumed the IGAD Peace Support Mission in Somalia (IGASOM), which was a proposed Intergovernmental Authority on Development protection and training mission to Somalia approved by the African Union on September 14, 2006.[8] IGASOM was also approved by the United Nations Security Council on 6 December 2006.[9]

IGASOM was originally proposed for immediate implementation in March 2005 to provide peacekeeping forces for the latest phase of the Somali Civil War.[10]

At that time, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) had not yet taken control of Mogadishu, and most hopes for national unity lay with the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) which had organized in Nairobi, Kenya in 2004 and were planning to established a provisional capital in Baidoa, Bay region, Somalia.

By May 2006, the situation was radically different, as the ICU had recently been engaged by the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism or ARPCT and was fighting for control of Mogadishu in the Second Battle of Mogadishu. By June, they had established control of the capital. Fighting began to spread to other parts of the nation as the ICU gained ground.

Plans for IGASOM continued, though by July there were indications of opposition from the ICU, who saw the initiative as a US-backed, Western means to curb the growth of their Islamic movement.[11]

Until December 2006, the UN Security Council had imposed an arms embargo on the group,[12] but the embargo was partially lifted and a mandate for IGASOM issued on 6 December 2006 for six months.[13]

Authorisation

On 21 February 2007, the United Nations Security Council authorised the African Union to deploy a peacekeeping mission with a mandate of six months.[3] In March 2007, Ugandan military officials arrived on the ground in Somalia.[14] On 20 August 2007, the United Nations Security Council extended the African Union's authorisation to continue deploying AMISOM for a further six months and requested the Secretary-General to explore the option of replacing AMISOM with a United Nations Peacekeeping Operation to Somalia.[4]

Most recently, on 26 May 2017, the UN Security Council unanimously approved resolution 2355, authorising member States of the African Union to maintain the deployment of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) until 31 August 2017 with a maximum strength of 22,126 uniformed personnel.[15]

Mission planning

Scope of the mission

An American officer inspecting troops from Sierra Leone prior to deployment to Somalia, 2012

IGASOM was expected to eventually reach 8,000 troops, with an expected cost of $335 million for the first year. According to UN Security Council Resolution 1725, states bordering Somalia would not be eligible to deploy troops under IGASOM. The remaining (non-bordering) IGAD member nations include Sudan, Eritrea, and Uganda. Because of the objection of the burden falling on these three nations alone (and the rivalry between Ethiopia and Eritrea), the mission was expanded to include other member states of the African Union.

AMISOM has a different composition. As proposed, it is to comprise an initial 3 battalions, growing to a total of 9 battalions of 850 troops each, which would serve for an initial stabilization period of 6 months. The mission was to be modelled after the African Union Mission in Burundi (AMIB).[2]

ICU resistance

As early as March 25, 2005 Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys of the Union of Islamic Courts warned any peacekeepers would be unwelcome in the country. He was quoted by the BBC as saying, "We will fight fiercely to the death any intervention force that arrives in Somalia."[16] Yet at the time, the ICU was not the political or military force it was to become later.

Faced with the ascendancy of the ICU after taking over the capital in the Second Battle of Mogadishu between May and June, 2006, UN-watchers were growing concerned with the level of hostility of the ICU towards the proposed IGASOM mission.[11]

Though IGAD and the ICU met and published a cordial and formal communique[17] committing the ICU to the IGAD plans on December 2, by the time United Nations Security Council Resolution 1725 was passed on December 6,[9] the ICU was openly and militantly opposed to peacekeepers entering Somalia, and vowed to treat any peacekeepers as hostile forces. Because of regional divisions, there were also UIC resistance to allowing Ethiopian troops be part of the mission. Ethiopia, for its part, was leery of allowing Eritrean troops to be members of the IGAD peacekeeping force.

In the face of ICU threats, Uganda, the only IGAD members who had openly offered to send forces (a battalion), withdrew in the face of concerns of the present feasibility of the mission.[18][19][20] In Uganda's defense, the crisis does not allow for peacekeepers when there are active hostilities conducted with heavy weapons (see Battle of Baidoa).

On January 1, 2007, after the defeat of the ICU in various battles in December 2006, Uganda again renewed its pledge of a battalion of troops. Between Uganda and Nigeria (which is a Member State of the African Union, but not of IGAD), there was a pledge of a total of 8,000 peacekeepers.[21] Ghana, Rwanda and Tanzania were reported to be considering sending forces.[22]

Gathering support

Burundian soldiers training before deployment to Somalia, 2012

Following the defeat of the Islamic Courts Union in December 2006 – January 2007 the international community began to gather both fiscal commitments as well as military forces for the mission. Nations of the African Union (AU) outside the IGAD community were drawn on to provide support.

On January 17, 2007, the US ambassador to Kenya, Michael Ranneberger, said the US pledged $40 million to support the deployment of a peacekeeping force for Somalia.[23] By January 20, the European Union followed with a pledge of 15 million euros.[24]

On January 19, 2007 the mission was formally defined and approved by the African Union at the 69th meeting of the Peace and Security Council.[2]

On January 22, 2007 Malawi agreed to send a half-battalion to a battalion (ranging widely anywhere between approximately 400 to 1,200 troops) for a peacekeeping mission to Somalia.[25]

On January 24, 2007 Nigeria pledged a battalion (a force between 770 and 1,100 troops) to join the Somali peacekeeping mission.[26]

On February 1, 2007 Burundi committed to the peacekeeping mission, pledging up to 1,000 troops.[27] By March 27, it was confirmed that 1700 Burundian peacekeepers would be sent to Somalia.[28]

On February 2, 2007, the United Nations Security Council welcomed the advent of the African Union and IGAD-led peacekeeping mission.[29]

On February 5, 2007 Tanzania offered to train Somali government troops, but not to deploy peacekeepers.[30]

On February 9, 2007 a gathering of 800 Somali demonstrators in north Mogadishu, where Islamist support was strongest, burned U.S., Ethiopian, and Ugandan flags in protest of the proposed peacekeeping mission. A masked representative of the resistance group, the Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations, said Ethiopian troops would be attacked in their hotels; the same group had made a video warning peacekeepers to avoid coming to Somalia.[31] By this date, Uganda, Nigeria, Ghana, Malawi and Burundi had committed to the peacekeeping mission, but the total force was about half of the proposed 8,000-strong force.[32] Uganda had pledged 1,400 troops and some armored vehicles for a mission lasting up to 9 months, and the AU had pledged $11.6 million.[33]

On February 16, 2007 Uganda announced it would deploy 1,500 well-seasoned troops as early as Saturday, February 17, 2007 under the command of Major General Levi Karuhanga. The troops had been training for two years in preparation for the mission.[34]

The Burundian troops were technically ready to go in early August 2007, but equipment promised by the United States and France had not yet arrived.[35] On December 23, 2007, an advance force of 100 Burundians was deployed[36] and another 100 soldiers arrived on 2007-12-24.[37] By late 2008, 1,700 Burundian soldiers were deployed to Mogadishu.[38]

Expanding role

AMISOM soldiers at the 2012 Female Peacekeepers' Conference

In a closed door meeting in Kampala on 22 July 2010, AU ministers agreed to expand the mission's mandate from a peacekeeping focus to a peace-enforcement focus that would engage al-Shabaab more directly. The decision came soon after deadly bomb attacks in the Ugandan capital.[39] A few days later in response to UN pressure, the AU agreed not to expand the mandate but did allow preemptive strikes against Al-Shabaab and promised more troops from other African countries.[40]

On July 23, 2010, Djibouti and Guinea pledged troops to AMISOM.[41] On 17 September 2010, an AU envoy said in Nairobi that AMISOM's size had grown from 6,300 to 7,200 troops after an additional battalion from Uganda joined the force.[42] In December 2010, the UN backed AMISOM in increasing the mission's authorised size to 12,000 - UN Security Council resolution 1964 of 22 December 2010 - and at the same time reports indicated that Uganda had promised an extra 1,800 personnel, with Burundi an extra 850.[43]

In March 2011 Burundi sent 1,000 extra soldiers to AMISOM, bringing the total number of Burundi troops deployed to 4,400.[44] AFP, reported in Africa Research Bulletin, said Burundian military chief General Godefroid Niyombare said on 14 March 2011 the soldiers had been deployed a week before.[45]

In February 2012, the U.N. Security Council boosted the amount of troops deployed from 12,000 to 17,731. The approval comes after a series of recent successes against al-Shabaab fighters who had previous positions throughout the central and southern areas of the country.[46] During the same month, AU Commander Fred Mugisha suggested that Al-Shabaab was "at [its] weakest" and would likely "implode in the not so distant future" owing to successive military defeats that it suffered as well as an exodus toward the Arabian Peninsula of hundreds of the group's fighters.[47]

Due to the successful military operations against the Islamists, the United States has also been stepping up efforts to train and equip the AMISOM troops in a bid to stamp out the Al-Shabaab insurgency and limit its influence.[48]

In October 2011, a coordinated operation between the Somali military and the Kenyan military began against the Al-Shabaab group of militants in southern Somalia.[49][50] The mission is officially being led by the Somali army, with the Kenyan forces providing a support role.[50] On 12 November, the Kenyan government agreed to rehat its forces under AMISOM command,[51] and later announced in March 2012 that it would be sending 5,000 troops to join the coalition. Analysts expect the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.[51]

The East African reported in March 2012 on reorganisation of AMISOM's headquarters and sector commands. Personnel (J1) would be led by the AU, with Kenya taking responsibility for intelligence (J2) and logistics (J4), Uganda operations (J3) and engineer (J8), Burundi plans (J5) and communications/IS (J6), Sierra Leone training (J7), and Djibouti CIMIC (J9). There would also be four sectors: Uganda responsible for Sector One (the Shabelles and Banadir), Sector Two (the Jubbas) run by Kenya, Sector Three Burundi covering GEdo, Bay, and BAkool, and Sector from which Ethiopia forces were withdrawing from to be directed by Djibouti.[52]

Following the Westgate shooting in Nairobi by Al Shabaab operatives, the Ethiopian government halted its plans to withdraw completely out of Somalia. It instead indicated that it would continue to support the Somali armed forces and their AMISOM allies.[53] In November 2013, the Ethiopian government announced that it would integrate its troops that are deployed in Somalia into the AMISOM multinational force. Somalia's Foreign Minister Fowzia Haji Yussuf welcomed the decision, stating that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against the insurgent group. She also emphasized the importance of collaboration between Somalia and Ethiopia.[54] The Ethiopian authorities' announcement came a month after a failed October bombing attempt by Al-Shabaab in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, and a week after Ethiopia received a renewed terrorism threat from the insurgent group.[55] According to Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Ambassador Dina Mufti, the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM is intended to render the peacekeeping operation more secure.[56] Analysts also suggested that the move was primarily motivated by financial considerations, with the Ethiopian forces' operational costs now slated to be under AMISOM's allowance budget. It is believed that the Ethiopian military's long experience in Somali territory, its equipment such as helicopters, and the potential for closer coordination will help the allied forces advance their territorial gains.[57] On the other hand, there is a certain amount of unease following Ethiopia's entry into AMISOM given local animosity originating from Ethiopia's heavy handed intervention in 2006. There are also fears that Al Shabaab could use Somali animosity towards Ethiopia as a rallying cry and to recruit more members.[58]

In December 2013, the U.S. government established a military coordination cell in Mogadishu at the request of AMISOM and the Somali government. The unit consists of a small team of fewer than five advisers, including planners and communicators between AMISOM and the Somali authorities. It is intended to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces in order to enhance their capacity and to promote peace and security throughout the country and wider region.[59]

Leadership and command

Ugandan troops training, 2012
An AU contingent pauses during combat operations against Al-Shabaab in Lower Shebelle.
Djiboutian Soldier patrol the base in Beledweyne, Somalia.

The Head of Mission is the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union for Somalia. On 7 October 2015 Francisco Caetano Jose Madeira, of Mozambique, was appointed to this position, replacing Maman Sambo Sidikou of Niger.[60]

Force Commanders

No. Name Nationality From To Note
1 Maj. Gen. Levi Karuhanga[61]  Uganda 14 February 2007 3 March 2008
2 Maj. Gen. Francis Okello  Uganda 3 March 2008 7 July 2009
3 Maj. Gen. Nathan Mugisha[62]  Uganda 7 July 2009 15 June 2011[63]
4 Maj. Gen. Fredrick Mugisha  Uganda 15 Jun 2011[63][64] 2 May 2012 [65]
5 Lt. Gen. Andrew Gutti[66]  Uganda 3 May 2012 16 December 2013[67]
6 Lt. Gen. Silas Ntigurirwa[68]  Burundi 16 December 2013 15 December 2014
7 Lt. Gen. Jonathon Kipkemoi Rono  Kenya December 2014 23 December 2015[69]
8 Maj. Gen. Nakibus Lakara  Uganda December 2015 Temporarily acting in role
9 Maj. Gen. Mohamedesha Zeyinu [70]  Ethiopia March 2016 Temporarily acting in role
10 Lt. Gen. Osman Noor Soubagleh [71]  Djibouti 18 July 2016 incumbent

Deputy Force Commanders

No. Name Nationality From To Note
1 Maj. Gen. Juvenal Niyoyunguruza  Burundi 2008 17 September 2009 KIA
2 Maj. Gen. Cyprien Hakiza  Burundi September 2009 April 2010
3 Maj. Gen. Maurice Gateretse  Burundi April 2010 June 2010
4 Maj. Gen. Audace Nduwumunsi  Burundi June 2010
5a Maj. Gen. Salvatore Harushimana  Burundi Deputy Force Commander (Support)
5b Maj. Gen. Simon N. Karanja[72]  Kenya 9 April 2012 December 2013 Deputy Force Commander (Operations & Plans)
6a Maj. Gen. Francis Kimeu Nthenge[73]  Kenya 27 November 2013 September 2014 Deputy Force Commander (Support & Logistics)
6b Maj. Gen. Geoffrey Baraba Muheesi[74]  Uganda 27 November 2013 Deputy Force Commander (Operations & Plans)
7a Maj. Gen. Nakibus Lakara[75]  Uganda April 2015 28 October 2016 [76] but then remained until 10 April 2017[77] Deputy Force Commander (Logistical Support)
7b Maj. Gen. Mohammed Esha Zeyinu[78]  Ethiopia 30 September 2016[79] Deputy Force Commander (Operations & Plans)
8a Maj. Gen. Salvator Harushimana  Burundi 10 April 2017 incumbent Deputy Force Commander (Administration & Logistics)[77]
8b Maj. Gen. Abreha Tesfay[79]  Ethiopia 1 October 2016 incumbent Deputy Force Commander (Operations & Plans)

Chiefs of Staff

No. Name Nationality From To Note
1 Col. Innocent Oula[80]  Uganda 2010? 2011? Initially this position was that of Chief Administration Officer for AMISOM.
2 Col. Simon Ocha  Uganda
3 Maj. Gen. Osman-Noor Soubagleh  Djibouti mid-2012 2013 The position was elevated to Force Chief of Staff in mid-2012, following the expansion of AMISOM through the inclusion of KDF forces.
4 Brig. Gen. Cyprien Ndikuriyo  Burundi 2014
5 Brig. Gen. Ayub Matiri[81] incumbent

Spokespersons

No. Name Nationality From To
1 Capt. Paddy Akunda[82]  Uganda March 2007 2008
2 Maj. Barigye Bohuko[83]  Uganda 2008 3 May 2011
3 Lt. Col. Paddy Akunda[84][85]  Uganda 3 May 2011 8 July 2012
4 Col. Ali Aden Houmed  Djibouti 8 July 2012 December 2014
5 Lt. Col. Paul Njuguna  Kenya 16 March 2015 April 2016?
6 Lt. Col. Joe Kibet  Kenya April 2016[86] incumbent

Force organisation

Sectors

Extent of AMISOM forces in Somalia.

On 15 October 2011 Kenyan forces crossed the border into Somalia to attack al-Shebaab. Subsequently UN Security Council resolution 2036 of 22 February 2012 authorised an increase in AMISOM troop numbers to 17,731 to incorporate the Kenyans.[87] This resolution took effect from mid-2012. At this time the initial Ugandan and Burundian AMISOM forces had been successful in largely clearing al-Shebaab militants from Mogadishu and the force was organised into new Sectors.[88]

  • Sector 1 (headquartered in Mogadishu and predominantly the domain of the Ugandan Contingent) covered the Banadir, Middle Shabelle and Lower Shabelle regions.
  • Sector 2 (headquartered in Kismayu and predominantly KDF responsibility, with the anticipated Sierra Leone contingent) covered the Gedo, Middle Juba and Lower Juba regions.
  • Sector 3 (headquartered in Baidoa and predominantly the responsibility of the Burundian contingent) covering the Bay and Bakool regions.
  • Sector 4 (headquartered in Belet Weyne and the responsibility of the Djibouti contingent) covering the Hiraan region.

Later, UN Security Council resolution 2124 of 12 November 2013 authorised a troop increase to 22,126 through inclusion of an Ethiopian contingent.[89] This took effect in January 2014, when the Sector organisation was modified to:[90]

  • Sector 1 (Mogadishu: Banadir and Lower Shabelle regions) - UPDF contingent
  • Sector 2 (Dobhey: Lower and Middle Juba regions) – KDF contingent, with the Sierra Leone contingent operating in a 'Sector Kismayu' until these forces left. During January 2016 Ethiopian troops deployed to Kismayo.[91]
  • Sector 3 (Baidoa: Bay, Bakool and Gedo regions) – Ethiopian contingent
  • Sector 4 (Belet Weyne: Hiiraan and Galgaduud regions) – Djiboutian contingent
  • Sector 5 (Jowhar: Middle Shabelle region) – Burundi contingent

In January 2017 Kismayo was mentioned as a separate sector - Sector 6 - under Colonel Paul Njema.[92] On 22 November 2017 AMISOM's twitter feed announced that Colonel Fréderic Ndayisaba of Burundi was replacing Colonel Paul K Njema of the Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) as Sector 6 Commander and described this command as a multinational sector composed of Burundian, Kenyan and Ethiopian troops based in Kismayo.

Contingents

Uganda Ugandan contingents

a. Commanders

No. Commander Took command Left command Note
1 Col. Peter Elwelu March 2007 March 2008 With Col. Kyazze
2 Col. Jack Bakusumba[93] December 2008 September 2009
3 Col. Tumusiime Katsigazi[94] September 2009 18 June 2010
4 Col. Michael Ondoga[95] 18 June 2010 3 May 2011
5 Brig. Gen. Paul Lokech[62] 3 May 2011 November 2012
6 Brig. Gen. Michael Ondoga[96] November 2012 23 September 2013
7 Brig. Gen. Deus Sande[97] 23 September 2013 25 September 2013 Acting in role
8 Brig. Gen. Dick Olum[97] 25 September 2013 October 2014
9 Brig. Gen. Sam Kavuma[98] October 2014 29 November 2015
10 Brig. Gen. Sam Okiding 30 November 2015 3 January 2017[99]
11 Brig. Gen. Kayanja Muhanga[100] 3 January 2017[99] incumbent

b. Battle groups

From the first deployment of Ugandan troops during March 2007—which saw a contingent of two battalions sent to Mogadishu—the UPDF contribution to AMISOM had by 2015 expanded to three battle groups, each of two or three battalions. The following table lists what details are known of the Ugandan battle groups, or 'Ugabag', deployed under AMISOM. The information presented has been collected from Ugandan press reports (largely gleaned from the website 'Allafrica.com') and news reports on the AMISOM website.

Battle Group Commander Arr. Somalia Dep. Somalia Strength Composition Notes
Ugabag I Mar. 2007 1,700 One infantry battalion (Col. Peter Elwelu) and one Armour/ Motorised Infantry battalion (Col. Kyazze) Lost five personnel?[101]
Ugabag II Dec. 2007 Nov. 2008 97 officers and 1,600 other ranks Two battalions? Lost 3 soldiers with 11 wounded during 11-month deployment, although in total nine Ugandans and one Burundian died during the deployment.[102]
Ugabag III Col. Jackson Bakasumba Nov./Dec. 2008 Aug./Sept. 2009 1,700 [102]
Ugabag IV Col. Tumusiime Katsigazi Sept. 2009 1,703 Two battalions? [103]
Ugabag V May 2010? 1,650 Two battalions?
Ugabag VI Col. Ondogu although also given as Lt. Col. Francis Chemo Apr. 2010? Jan. 2011 Included 23 Bn (Lt. Col. Patrick Tibihwa, KIA Jun 2011)[104] Nine-month deployment. Lost ten pers with 30 injured [105]
Ugabag VII Lt. Col. Justus Besisira Jan. 2011 1,800 Two battalions? [106]
Ugabag VIII Col. Kayanja Muhanga
Ugabag IX Col. Stephen Mugerwa, or Lt. Col. Frederick Akiiki Rugadya, or Lt. Col. Eugine Ssebugwawo Apr. 2012 May 2013 1,500 but also given as 2,369 Reinforced by 'Ugabag IX+'?
Ugabag X Col. Edison Muwaguzi (or Muhanguzi), later charged and demoted Oct. 2013 25 Bn (Maj. Sentamu), 39 Bn (Lt. Col. Wamale), 45 Bn (Maj. Ruziro) Replaced Ugabag VIII.
Ugabag XI Col. Joseph Balikudembe Jan. 2013 Feb. 2014 1,700 Replaced Ugabag IX. Reinforced by 'Ugabag XI+' under Col. Hassan Kimbowa from May 2013?
Ugabag XII Sept./Oct. 2013 Oct./Nov. 2014 2,930 37 Bn, 43 Bn and 61 Bn Lost 17 personnel.
Ugabag XIII Col. William Bainomugisha, then Col. Ben Sserwada Feb. 2014 June 2015
Ugabag XIV Col. Frank Kyambadde Oct./Nov. 2014 Nov./Dec. 2015 2,754 Lost 22 personnel. Based at BARAWE. Replaced Ugabag XII.
Ugabag XV Col. Silvio Aguma Apr. 2016 35 Bn (Lt. Col. Paul Muhanguzi) Based at ARBISKA. New battle group, making three in the UPDF contingent.
Ugabag XVI Col. Bosco Mutambi then Col. Peter Omola Gatilano June 2015 July 2016 1,400 Included 13 Bn (Maj. Mwesigye)[107] Battle group headquartered at MARKA.[107] Company base near JANAALE was overrun by al-Shebaab on 1 September 2015, soon after the battle group's deployment to Somalia. Nineteen Ugandan troops were killed, one captured,[108] and 22 injured. This led to the replacement of the battle group commander and a later Board of Inquiry.[109]
Ugabag XVII Col. Bob Ogik Nov. 2015 Dec. 2016 2,777[110] Based at BARAWE. Replaced Ugabag XIV.
Ugabag XVIII Col. Ronald Bigirwa Mar./Apr. 2016 Apr. 2017[111] Based at ARBISKA. Replaced Ugabag XV.
Ugabag XIX Col. Anthony Mbuusi Lukwago July 2016 July 2017 Operated in the Marka area. Replaced Ugabag XVI.[112]
Ugabag XX Col. Bernard Tuhame Dec. 2016 Nov. 2017[113] 2,745 7 Bn, 69 Bn and one other Replaced Ugabag XVII.[100]
Ugabag XXI Col. Chris Ogwal Apr. 2017 Replaced Ugabag XVIII.[114][111]
Ugabag XXII July 2017 Replaced Ugabag XIX in the Marka area.[115]

Burundi Burundi contingents

a. Commanders

No. Commander Took command Left command
1 Brig. Gen. Prime Niyongabo[68] June 2009 June 2010
2 Brig. Gen. Maurice Gateretse[80] June 2010 July 2011
3 Col. Oscar Nzohabonimana[116] July 2011 June 2012
4 Col. Geard Bigirimana[117] June 2012 July 2013
5 Col. Jean Luc Habarugira July 2013
6 Col. Reverien Ndayambaje[118]
7 Col. Venant Bibonimana June 2016[119]
8 Brig. Gen. Venuste Nduwayo 11 July 2016[120]

b. Battalions

Burundi sent its first battalion to Mogadishu to join Ugandan troops in AMISOM in December 2007. It took until October 2008 to build the national contingent up to two battalions, due in part to a lack of equipment.[121] But subsequently the Burundi contingent increased to a six battalion force.[122] The Burundi force commitment is frequently cited as 5432 troops, which would align with a contingent of six battalions (of about 850 personnel each, the UN ‘standard’) together with headquarters and support elements.

  • 1 Battalion. Arrived December 2007.[123]
  • 2 Battalion. Deployed mid-October 2008.[121]

....

  • 26 Battalion. Returned home at the end of May 2015.[124]
  • 27 Battalion. Returned home at the end of May 2015.[124]
  • 28 Battalion. Returned home in October 2015 after 14 month deployment.
  • 29 Battalion. Returned home in November 2015; replaced by 35 Battalion.
  • 30 Battalion. Returned home in November 2015; replaced by 36 Battalion.
  • 31 Battalion, 828 personnel. Returned home 28 May 2016.
  • 32 Battalion (Maj. John Manirakiza). Returned home during July 2016 after year-long deployment.[125]
  • 33 Battalion (Maj. Richard Nikoyagize). Returned home during July 2016 after year-long deployment.[125]
  • 34 Battalion (Maj. Sylvain Kinigi). Deployed October 2015 (replacing 28 Battalion?) and returned home February 2017.[126]
  • 35 Battalion. Deployed November 2015, replacing 29 Battalion?
  • 36 Battalion. Deployed November 2015, replacing 30 Battalion?
  • 37 Battalion (Maj. Adolphe Kaguruka). Deployed May 2016, replacing 31 Battalion? Returned home June 2017.[127]
  • 38 Battalion, 850 personnel. Deployed July 2016, replacing 32 Battalion[128][129]
  • 39 Battalion, 850 personnel. Deployed July 2016, replacing 33 Battalion[128][129]

40, 41 and 42 Battalions were scheduled for deployment in November 2016 but this was delayed. There was speculation this delay was a result of disappointment within Burundi over delays in EU payments in support of AMISOM and the suggestion by the EU that payments could be made directly to the Burundian troops rather than through the Burundi government; or domestic political tensions within Burundi arising from the president running for a third term of office.[130][131][132] By January 2017 the Burundi government threatened to withdraw its forces from Somalia altogether, arguing that these were a national contingent and not mere mercenaries, as would be suggested by the troops receiving payment directly from any third party.[133] Subsequently agreement was reached on the question of EU payments and it was announced the Burundi contingents would remain with AMISOM in Somalia.[134]

  • 40 Battalion (Maj. Leonidas Nsingirankabo). Deployed February 2017, replacing 34 Battalion.[135]
  • 41 Battalion
  • 42 Battalion
  • 43 Battalion (Maj. Chartier Nyandwi). Deployed June 2017, replacing 37 Battalion.[136]
  • 44 Battalion
  • 45 Battalion (Lt. Col. Philbert Hatungimana). Arrived in Somalia August 2017, replacing 39 Battalion, and to be deployed to Jowhar.[137]

Ethiopia Ethiopian contingents

No. Name Took command Left command
1 Brig. Gen. Gebremedhin Fikadu Hailu[138] January 2014 incumbent

Kenya Kenyan contingents

No. Name Took command Left command
1 Brig. Gen. Anthony Mukundi Ngere[139] July 2012 December 2013
2 Brig. Gen. Walter Koipaton Raria[140] December 2013 mid-2015
3 Brig. Gen. Daniel C Bartonjo[141] mid-2015
4 Brig. Gen. William Shume[142] incumbent

Djibouti Djiboutian contingents

No. Commander Took command Left command Notes
1 Col. Osman Doubad[143][144] December 2011[145] Incumbent Responsible for Sector 4, headquartered in Belet Weyne and covering Hiiraan and Galgaduud regions. While Col. Osman Doubad is given as Contingent Commander as late as January 2016, another senior officer, Col. Abdourahman Abdi Dhembil, has been reported as 'Sector 4 Commander'.[146] Most recently, Col. Hassan Jama Farah has been named as a Djibouti commander.[147]

Sierra Leone Sierra Leone contingent

No. Commander Arr. Somalia Dep. Somalia
1 Col. Mamadi Mohamed Keita[148] April 2013 4 July 2013, on promotion[149]
2 Brig. Gen. Tamba R. Allieu [150] July 2013? January 2015?

Leobatt 1 (Lt. Col. Abubakar Conteh), 850 strong,[151] served in Sector 2 under Kenyan Command, later in Sector Kismayu under their own command.[152][153] A second battalion (Leobatt 2, Commanding Officer Lt. Col. George Mamoud Bangura[154]) was announced and intended to relieve Leobatt 1 early in 2014.[155] However, due to unexplained delays this second battalion completed first phase training only in January 2014, with planned second and third phase training scheduled to last a further three months each.[156] It was then planned to relieve the first contingent in August 2014 but an Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa caused further concerns. During October 2014 it was announced the second contingent had been in isolation for four months and "cleared" of Ebola virus,[157] but this was quickly followed by an announcement from the Sierra Leone Chief of Defence Staff that the contingent would not travel to Somalia.[158] Leobatt 1 eventually left Somalia for home only in January 2015.[159]

Civil staff

The civilian staff of AMISOM has been operating from Nairobi, Kenya since 2008 due to the security situation in Mogadishu, Somalia.[160] As of now, they number approximately 81 personnel.

Since the beginning of 2011 AMISOM and TFG has taken control over several strategic places in Mogadishu after several offensives against Al-Shabaab.

With the expanded control over the capital AMISOM on 16 May 2011 moved the civil staff and police officers to Mogadishu. This includes Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia (SRCC) Ambassador Boubacar Gaoussou Diarra and deputy (SRCC) Honourable Wafula Wamunyinyi.[160]

Much of the key logistical support for the force is provided by the United Nations Support Office for AMISOM (UNSOA), a field mission of the UN Secretariat Department of Field Support.

The Civilian component is supervised by the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia (SRCC) which is represented on the ground by Ambassador Mahamat Saleh Annadif. who oversees the Political, Civil, Humanitarian, Gender and Public Information departments.

Ambassador Epiphanie Kabushemeye-Ntamwana is the civilian Chief of Staff.

The Chief Administrative Officer Timothy Kiguti heads the support component of the mission which includes administration personnel, finance and budgeting, logistics and procurement among other issues.

The Police contingent, which provides capacity building, both institutional and individual in support of the Somali Police Force, is headed by the AMISOM Police Commissioner Anand Pillay

Training for contingents

The United States has provided extensive training for contingents headed for Somalia. In the first half of 2012, Force Recon Marines from Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force 12 (SPMAGTF-12) trained soldiers from the Uganda People's Defence Force.[161] In the northern spring of 2012 [March–April–May], Marines from SPMAGTF-12 also trained Burundian soldiers. In April and May, members of Task Force Raptor, 3rd Squadron, 124th Cavalry Regiment of the Texas Army National Guard, took part in a separate training mission with the BNDF in Mudubugu, Burundi. SPMAGTF-12 has also sent its trainers to Djibouti, another nation involved in the Somali mission, to work with an army unit there.

At the same time, U.S. troops have assisted in training the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces in preparation for their deployment to Somalia later this year[when?]. In June 2012, U.S. Army Africa commander Major General David R. Hogg spoke encouragingly of the future of Sierra Leone's forces in conjunction with Kenya.[162] As of June 2012, the RSLAF troops have not yet deployed; the Sierra Leonean defence minister said on June 23, 2012, that the battalion might depart for the Horn 'some time in September [2012].'[163]

In addition, a significant amount of support to AMISOM has been provided by private companies. "Bancroft Global Development, headquartered on Washington's Embassy Row, employs about 40 South African and European trainers who work with [AMISOM's] Ugandan and Burundian troops.[164] Bancroft director Michael Stock told The EastAfrican that these mentors are embedded with AMISOM units in Mogadishu and southern and central Somalia. They coach commanders on ..how to predict and defeat the tactics which foreign fighters bring from outside East Africa and teach to al-Shabaab." Bancroft "does not receive funding directly from the US government but is instead paid by AMISOM, which is then reimbursed by the State Department for these outlays." The Associated Press reports that Bancroft has been paid $12.5 million for its work in Somalia since 2008.

A security analyst in Somalia listed three primary private security companies/private military companies operating in Mogadishu.[165] DynCorp, who provide logistical support in the Somali capital; Bancroft International, who provide training to TFG and AMISOM personnel, as well as assisting with community service delivery; and Pacific Architects & Engineers.

Deployment

Troop numbers

Country Armed personnel (current) Casualties
Troops Police Killed Missing or captured
UgandaUganda People's Defence Force 6,223 201[166] 110[167]-2,700+[168]
BurundiBurundi National Defence Force 5,432[169] 95+[167] 4 missing,[170] 1 captured[171]
EthiopiaEthiopian National Defense Force 4,395[172] 2+ (supposedly)[173]
KenyaKenya Defence Forces 3,664[140] 48[174] 36-118[175][176]
DjiboutiDjibouti Armed Forces 2,000[177] 8+[178][179][180]
Sierra LeoneRepublic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces 0 (formerly 850)* [181] 47[182] 1[181]
NigeriaNigeria Police Force 200[183]
GhanaGhana Police Service 56[184]
Total 21,500+ 550+ 1,108[167]-3,000+[185] 5
* The reason why troops from Sierra Leone were withdrawn was the inability to rotate in fresh soldiers, due to the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone and the surrounding region. In response, Ethiopia has offered to replace the contingent from Sierra Leone with Ethiopian reinforcements.[186]
- The total number of personnel under AMISOM (including armed personnel and civil staff) is reportedly around 22,126.[73]
- Before joining AMISOM in January 2014, the Ethiopian Defense Force was believed to have an estimated 8,000 troops in the country.[56] It is also believed that some Ethiopian troops in Somalia operate independently from AMISOM.[187]
- Likewise, Kenya had troops deployed in Somalia independently before they were brought under the AMISOM umbrella
- Cameroon, Mali, Senegal, and Zambia were known to have a total of four personnel inserted into AMISOM. However, it is not known whether they were security or civil personnel.[44][188]
- Furthermore, there are also a small number of police officers from Burundi, Gambia, and Zimbabwe that are inserted into AMISOM[73]

Casualties and major incidents

According to SIPRI, 1,039 AMISOM soldiers were killed in action between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, with an additional 69 fatalities in 2014 (per AMISOM) bringing the total to 1,108 dead from 2009 through 2014.[167]

March 2007–February 2011

AMISOM medical facility records showed 110 Ugandan and 95 Burundian soldiers had died between March 2007 and February 2011 in Somalia. Another 798 AMISOM soldiers were wounded.[167] Some of the most deadliest incidents were:

  • February 22, 2009 – 11 Burundian soldiers were killed and 15 wounded in a double suicide attack on their base in Mogadishu.
  • July 23–29, 2009 – An epidemic of Leptospirosis hit the Burundian and Ugandan military camps in Mogadishu killing three Burundian and two Ugandan soldiers. Another 18 Burundian soldiers were placed in quarantine. About 50 Burundian and 17 Ugandan soldiers were evacuated for medical treatment to Nairobi, Kenya.[189][190]
  • September 17, 2009 – 17 soldiers were killed and 29 wounded in a suicide attack by Islamist rebels on the headquarters of the African Union force in Mogadishu. At least four civilians were also killed and more than 10 wounded. 12 of those killed were Burundian soldiers and five were Ugandan. Among the dead was the AMISOM deputy commander Maj. Gen. Juvenal Niyonguruza, from Burundi. Also, one of the wounded was AMISOM commander Gen. Nathan Mugisha, from Uganda.[191]
  • February 23–March 4, 2011 – 53–82 AU troops were killed in clashes with al-Shabab fighters during an offensive in Mogadishu, 190 other AMISOM troops were also wounded.[192][193] In addition, a Burundian soldier was captured alive by militants.[171] These were, at the time, the heaviest losses since AMISOM deployed. 43 of those killed were confirmed as Burundian soldiers and 10 as Ugandans.[192] Also, 110 of the wounded were Burundians. Beside the 43 killed in action, four Burundian soldiers were declared missing in action.[170]

March–December 2011

  • March 5 – A Burundian soldier was injured by the controlled explosion of a car bomb of al-Shabab militants.[194] AMISOM forces won back the rebel-controlled town of Bulo Hawo with the help of forces loyal to the Somali government.[195]
  • March 17 – Six AU soldiers were killed in heavy clashes between Somali government troops backed by AMISOM in Mogadishu and al-Shabab militants.[196]
  • May 12–June 11 – 12 AU soldiers were killed (including 7 Ugandans) and 13+ injured during the Bakaara market offensive in Mogadishu.
  • July 29 – Four Ugandan soldiers were killed and five wounded during clashes in Mogadishu. An AMISOM tank was also destroyed.[197][198][199]
  • August 1 – At least two AMISOM soldiers were killed and others wounded in a suicide attack on an AMISOM base in Mogadishu.[200]
  • October 10 – One AMISOM soldier was killed and six injured in an operation in North East of Mogadishu. The former Pasta Factory and critical junction, Ex Control Bal’ad, are after that in Government hands.[201]
  • October 20 – At least 70 Burundian soldiers were killed and their bodies filmed and paraded by Al-Shabaab following the battle of Deynile, Mogadishu.[202][203] An unknown number of soldiers were wounded. One AU armoured vehicle was also destroyed in the fighting.[204][205]
  • October 23 – Two AU soldiers were wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself up near a convoy of AU peacekeepers in Mogadishu.[206]
  • October 29 - Al-Shabab militants attacked an AMISOM compound injuring two AU soldiers in the Somali capital Mogadishu.[207]
  • December 25 - A Burundian soldier was killed by an improvised explosive device, and two others were wounded in Mogadishu.[208]

2012

  • January 14 - A Ugandan soldier was killed by a Somali soldier in Mogadishu. The reasons for the act are unknown.[209]
  • January 20 - Two AU soldiers were injured in a military offensive to consolidate security in Mogadishu.[210]
  • March 2 - Two Ugandan soldiers were injured during the capture of the city of Maslah.[211]
  • March 29 - Four Burundian soldiers were wounded in a battle on Daynile District on Mogadishu.[212]
  • August 31 - 5 Kenyan soldiers were missing after the capture of Miido. A search and rescue was mounted. Three other soldiers were injured.[213] Three of the soldiers were found alive two days later, but the fate of the other two soldiers remained unknown.[214] A few days later, their bodies were shown in a video posted by the insurgents.[215]
  • September 19 - Two AMISOM troops were injured during the capture of Janaa Cabdalla town located 50 kilometres to the west of the port city of Kismayo in the Lower Jubba region.[216]
  • October 24 - Four Ugandan soldiers were killed by a bomb while advancing towards Baidoa.[217]
  • October 29 - 3-4 Ugandan soldiers were killed and seven wounded in an attack by two suicide bombers on an AMISOM base in Mogadishu.[218]
  • November 19 – At least two Kenyan soldiers who are part of the African Union(AU) peacekeeping force in Somalia were killed in Garissa, a base for security forces in Kenya fighting insurgents in neighbouring Somalia, Kenya's army spokesman said on Monday.[219]

2014

  • March 11, 2014 - At least two AMISOM peacekeepers were injured as AMISOM and Somali troops advanced into areas close to coastal town of Barawe and Qoryoley.[220]
  • March 18, 2014 - At least three Dijiboutian soldiers were killed in a hotel attack on the town of Bulo-burde.[179]
  • April 5, 2014 - During joint AMISOM-Somali incursion to liberate the town of Wabxo, Al Shabaab fighters claimed to have killed Ethiopian troops from AMISOM and posted photos on social media showing fighters posing over two unidentified bodies in uniform with AMISOM patches, Ethiopian script, helmets, and various weapons.[173]
  • May 24, 2014 - Three Ugandan peacekeepers died in an attack by thirteen Al Shabaab militants on the Somali Parliament alongside four Somali soldiers and a police officer. In addition, four Ugandans were wounded but in stable condition. The attack started with a car bomb driven into the parliament building's entrance and ended with eleven of the attackers killed while the other two detonated suicide bombs.[221]
  • May 26, 2014: Two Kenyan soldiers in a supply convoy were killed in an ambush by suspected Al Shabaab militants near the town of Lamu in an area close to the Ras Kamboni region. Kenyan officials confirm that some other Kenyan soldiers were wounded while one militant was killed. They also state that they are in pursuit of the attackers, who fled after the ambush.[222]
  • June 13, 2014: A roadside bomb that was detonated near the town of Bulo Burde injured six AMISOM and Somali soldiers. At least three of the casualties were from the Djibouti contingent, and were airlifted to Mogadishu for medical attention after the attack.[223]
  • June 26, 2014: Militants from Al-Shabaab launched an attack on the town of Bulo-burde, which has been besieged by militants and cut off from road access since it came under government control in March. Witnesses say that the attack lasted thirty minutes and began when militants stormed a military base established in a hotel complex before they were driven back by the combined force of the SNA and AMISOM. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility and claimed to have killed six soldiers while the AU commander, Ibrahim Ali, stated that two Djiboutian peacekeepers, one civilian, and two militants were killed.[180]
  • August 16, 2014: The Somali government assisted by AMISOM launch Operation Indian Ocean to clean up the remaining Al-Shabaab-held pockets in the countryside.[7]
  • August 25, 2014: Somali government forces assisted by Ethiopian AMISOM troops capture Tiyeglow from Al-Shabaab. The offensive is part of a larger military cleanup operation dubbed Operation Indian Ocean. Situated around 530 km northeast of Mogadishu along the main road linking Beledweyne and Baidoa, Tiyeglow previously served as a strategic base for the insurgent group. Witnesses indicate that the Al-Shabaab fighters mounted no resistance during the raid, fleeing instead to adjacent forested areas. According to AMISOM, the successful military operation deprives the insurgent group of high extortion fees that it would previously charge to vehicles traveling along the town's principal road. The siege also now gives the Somali government full control of the Bakool province. Additionally, AMISOM representatives indicate that, in an attempt to slow the allied forces' march, the insurgents planted roadside explosive devices before fleeing, which they were presently defusing.[224]
  • September 2014: Human Rights Watch published a report accusing a few soldiers within the Ugandan and Burundian contingents of AMISOM of sexual misconduct on two of the mission's bases in Mogadishu.[225] The African Union issued an official statement denying the allegations, which it characterized as isolated cases largely involving a single rogue soldier. It also pledged to investigate the charges, and indicated that a number of internal mechanisms had been instituted to prevent, mitigate and discipline any transgressions.[226]
  • September 6, 2014: Somali government forces assisted by Ethiopian troops seize El Garas in the Galguduud province from Al-Shabaab. According to the Somali military spokesman Mohamed Kariye Roble, the village was a main base for the insurgent group, serving as both a springboard from which it would launch attacks and a supply storage area.[227]
  • September 12, 2014: Ugandan and Kenyan AMISOM forces conduct security operations in Lagta Berta in Lower Juba, where Al-Shabaab had established two bases after vacating Barawe. The militant group incurs significant fatalities during the raid, including foreign insurgents, and a number of its fighters are also injured. The attack destroys the Al-Shabaab hideout facility.[228]
  • September 13, 2014: Somali government forces and AMISOM troops capture Aboreey, Moqokori, Yasooman and Muuse-geel villages in the Bulobarte district from Al-Shabaab. The militants mount no resistance.[229] Additionally, Somali government forces and AMISOM troops seize Abooto-barrey, Ceel-Sheel, Carraale and Kaawada villages in the Galguduud province's El Bur district from Al-Shabaab.[229]
  • December 18, 2014: The Sierra Leonian contingent (850 troops) leaves AMISOM and is not replaced. Main reason for their departure is the Ebola outbreak in their home country. During their stay in Somalia the Sierra Leone troops suffered 1 dead and 6 wounded. They were based in Kismayo.[181] In response, Ethiopia has offered to replace the contingent from Sierre Leon with Ethiopian reinforcements.[186]
  • December 26, 2014: Eight Al-Shabaab militants, dressed in Somali uniforms, launched an attack on an AMISOM base near Mogadishu International Airport, which is also home to a United Nations office and several embassies. All militants were killed while five AMISOM peacekeepers and one foreign contractor was killed.[230]

2015

  • March 21, 2015: Somali National Army forces and AMISOM troops launch a security sweep in the Bulo Burde district to clear an Al-Shabaab blockade in the area. The cleanup operation commences in Baladweyne, with the joint forces removing militants from settlements on both sides of the main road leading towards the district center. Casualties include around five SNA troops and one AMISOM soldier. Local officials do not issue a statement pending arrival at Bulo Burde.[231]
  • April 19, 2015: Al-Shabaab insurgents attack Kenyan AMISOM troops in the southern Delbio area of Somalia. The insurgents reportedly shoot at the Kenyan soldiers' vehicle, with a gunfight ensuing. AMISOM fatalities include three dead troops. Officials indicate that eight wounded AMISOM soldiers are also being transported to Nairobi for treatment. The militants reportedly retreat into the forest.[232] Al-Shabaab also attack AMISOM troops that are garrisoned between Lego and Balidogle. According to AMISOM Colonel Paul Njuguna, three soldiers are killed in the ensuing skirmish. He adds that the Somali National Army and AMISOM are endeavoring to liberate the remaining areas under insurgent control, with Al-Shabaab in a much weaker state than only two years prior.[233]
  • June 26, 2015: At least 50 Burundian soldiers (with potential excesses of over 70) were reported killed in an attack on their base by Al-Shabab. The attack occurred in Leego near the capital of Mongadishu. It is stated that AMISOM was preparing for an offensive in the region while Al-Shabab was bringing in reinforcements to counter it.[234]
  • September 1, 2015: Between 20-50 AMISOM peacekeepers are killed after the Janale base, 90 km (55 miles) south-east of the capital, is overrun by Al-Shabab militants.[235] After bombing a bridge to eliminate a potential escape route and breaching the gate with a car bomb, Al-Shabab militants were able to enter and take over the base.[236] AMISOM peacekeepers were stated to have withdrawn. After looting the base of weaponry, the militants withdrew and AMISOM troops were seen retaking the area. There have also been reports of troops taken captive during the assault.[237]

2016

  • On 15 January a Kenyan company base at El Adde, manned by a detachment of 9 Battalion Kenya Rifles, was overrun by al-Shebaab. Several soldiers were captured, including Private Leonard Maingi who was later murdered by the terrorist group in August 2017. Reports of casualties among the KDF detachment were confused but a later report suggested around 150 Kenyan soldiers died in the attack, with some of their bodies being dragged publicly through the streets of nearby towns by the terrorists.[238] [239] [240]
  • On 19 March 2016 two Kenyan soldiers were killed and five others wounded when their convoy was ambushed by terrorists in Lower Juba. During the engagement 21 al-Shebaab fighters were reported killed.[241]
  • al-Shabaab lost several of their leaders to U.S. airstrikes during May 2016.[242][243]
  • al-Shabaab fighters attacked an AMISOM base in June 2016.[244]
  • During November Lieutenant Dedan Karithi Karuti (26), of 17 Battalion Kenya Rifles, was killed when the vehicle in which he was travelling was struck by an improvised explosive device on the Warei–Elwak road.[245]

2017

  • During January al-Shebaab released a video showing the murder of a Ugandan soldier, Private M. Y. Masasa, who had been captured in September 2015 when the AMISOM base at Janaale was overrun by al-Shebaab.[246][247]
  • On 2 January two suicide car bombs targeted a security checkpoint near the airport and a hotel.[248]
  • On 4 January three UN soldiers were wounded by an explosion near their headquarters in Mogadishu.[249]
  • On 24 January an attack on a hotel in Mogadishu left 28 people dead.
  • On 25 January at least 25 people were killed in an al-Shebaab suicide assault on the Somali Parliament building. Two suicide car bombs were used in the assault.[250]
  • On 27 January a Kenyan base near Kulbiyow town in the Lower Juba region was attacked by al-Shebaab. According to some reports the base, manned by members of 15 Battalion Kenya Rifles, was overrun and up to 50 Kenyans killed. Kenyan reports say the base was successfully defended and put their death toll at nine.[251] [252] [253]
  • On 2 February a civilian was injured when a car bomb exploded near his house.[254]
  • On 19 February a car bomb detonated at a Mogadishu market, killing at least 30 people.[255]
  • On 27 February a number of Somali National Army (SNA) soldiers were wounded by a car bomb.[256]
  • On 28 February a Somali government official was assassinated when an IED fitted under the driver’s seat of his car exploded.[257]
  • On 2 March it was announced that at least 57 al-Shebaab fighters had been killed in an attack by the Kenyan Defence Force. The KDF spokesman was reported as saying: 'KDF soldiers operating under AMISOM engaged al-Shebaab militants at a location 31 km northwest of Afmadow, close to Subow centre using artillery fire and supported by helicopter gunships'.[258]
  • On 12 March a Somali journalist survived an assassination attempt after an IED fitted to his car exploded.[259]
  • On 13 March a Somali military base in Mogadishu was targeted by a car bomb, killing three and wounding five.[260]
  • On 13 March a popular hotel was targeted, leaving six dead.[261]
  • On 21 March ten people were killed and 12 others wounded when a car bomb detonated at a security checkpoint.[262]
  • On 24 March a car bomb targeted a popular cafe and hotel near the presidential palace.[263]
  • On 27 March it was announced that 31 al-Shebaab fighters had been killed during KDF raids on two bases.[264]
  • On 5 April 5 eight people were killed outside the Ministry of Youth and Sports headquarters by a car bomb.[265]
  • On 9 April a suicide bomber in a vehicle unsuccessfully targetted the new SNA commander, General Mohamed Ahmed Jimale, as his convoy left a military base in Mogadishu.[266] Fifteen SNA soldiers were killed, including several high-ranking officers, and 20 others were wounded in the attack.[267]
  • On 10 April 2017 Kenyan sources announced that 15 al-Shebaab fighters had been killed when their camp 4 km west of Catamaa, and approximately 104 km from El Wak, was shelled and then assaulted.[268]
  • On 19 April a Djibouti soldier was killed by a member of the SNA following an argument in Bula-burte town, Hiiraan region.[269]
  • On 7 May a Somali intelligence official survived an assassination attempt after an IED fitted to his car exploded on Maka al Mukarama Street, Mogadishu.[270]
  • On 8 May a cafe on Maka al Mukarama Street, Mogadishu, was targeted by a car bomb, killing five and leaving ten others wounded.[271]
  • On 15 May police intercepted and later destroyed a car bomb intended to target the National Theatre.
  • On 17 May a car bomb was intercepted but later accidentally detonated killing three and wounding two others.[272]
  • On 24 May eight people were killed and 15 others wounded in a car bomb targeting a police checkpoint.[273]
  • On 14 June eleven people were killed in an ‘’al- Shebaab’’ suicide car bomb attack near a restaurant and hotel in Mogadishu.[274]
  • On 20 June six people were killed when a car bomb detonated near a local government administration office in Mogadishu’s Wadajir district.[275]
  • On 22 June a police station on Maka al Mukarama Street, Mogadishu, was targeted by a car bomb.[276]
  • On 19 July a car bomb detonated outside the Ministry of Youth and Sports headquarters wounding one Somali intelligence official.[277]
  • On 30 July five soldiers were killed by a car bomb near a security checkpoint on Maka al Mukarama Street.[278]
  • On 30 July a joint SNA/Ugandan convoy was ambushed at Goryowein in the Lower Shabelle region, some 140 km southwest of Mogadishu, as they patrolled the Mogadishu–Barawe road, a major supply route for forward bases. Reports of casualties varied but Uganda admitted to losing 12 soldiers with another seven wounded in the attack.[279]
  • On 31 July a Somali intelligence official was targeted by an IED attached to his car. The official and two civilians were wounded.[280]
  • During August al-Shebaab released a video showing the murder of a Kenyan soldier, Leonard Maingi, who had been captured in January 2016 when the Kenyan base at El Adde was overrun by al-Shebaab.[281]
  • On 4 August four people were killed and six others wounded in a car bomb targeting The Ambassador Hotel on Maka al Mukarama Street.[282]
  • On 10 August a suicide bomber was stopped at a security checkpoint on Maka al Mukarama Street. The bomber escaped but the bomb later detonated, killing one civilian and wounding three others.[283]
  • On 14 August an IED fitted under a taxi killed at least one person near the Jazeera Palace Hotel.[284]
  • On 27 August a car bomb detonated injuring two people on Maka al Mukarama Street.[285]
  • On 11 September a car bomb killed one person and injured four others near a cafe and hotel on Maka al Mukarama Street.[286]
  • On 20 September a Somali intelligence official was assassinated when a bomb on his car exploded in Mogadishu.[287]
  • On 24 September Somali General Abdullahi Mohamed Sheikh Qururuh and his bodyguard were assassinated by gunmen in Mogadishu.[288]
  • On 28 September a car bomb outside a restaurant killed seven people.[289]
  • On 29 September Somali sources reported 30 people — 12 soldiers and 18 insurgents — killed in an al-Shebaab attack on an SNA base in Barire, 47 km southwest of Mogadishu. al-Shebaab sources reported 30 government soldiers killed and 11 vehicles captured by them.[290]
  • On 14 October a large vehicle-borne explosive device detonated at a busy crossroads in Mogadishu, killing at least 300 people. While al-Shebaab did not claim responsibility for this attack it was widely believed to have been the work of this terrorist group.[291]
  • On 25 October a Ugandan soldier and two civilians were reported killed by al-Shebaab insurgents in an ambush on the outskirts of Mogadishu which also left four terrorists dead.[292]
  • On 28 October five al-Shebaab terrorists detonated a car bomb outside a Mogadishu hotel before assaulting the building and killing civilians. Up to 23 people were killed, along with two of the terrorists, before Somali security forces were able to end the attack. Three surviving terrorists were captured.[293] A second suicide car bomb detonated near the former Parliament house.[294]

See also

References

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External links

  • Official website
  • Media related to African Union Mission to Somalia at Wikimedia Commons
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