Afonso VI of Portugal

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Afonso VI
Afonso VI de Portugal.JPG
D. Afonso VI; Domenico Duprà
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Reign 6 November 1656 – 12 September 1683
Acclamation 15 November 1657
Predecessor João IV
Successor Pedro II
Regents
Born 21 August 1643
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
Died 12 September 1683 (aged 40)
Sintra Palace, Sintra, Portugal
Burial Pantheon of the Braganzas
Consort Maria Francisca of Savoy
(m. 1666; ann 1668)
House Braganza
Father João IV of Portugal
Mother Luisa de Guzmán
Religion Roman Catholicism

Afonso VI (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu]; English: Alphonzo or Alphonse, Old Portuguese: Affonso; 21 August 1643 – 12 September 1683), known as "the Victorious" (o Vitorioso), was the second King of Portugal and the Algarves of the House of Braganza from 1656 until his death. He was initially under the regency of his mother, Luisa of Medina-Sidonia, until 1662, when he removed her to a convent and took power with the help of his favourite, the Count of Castelo Melhor.

Afonso's reign saw the end of the Restoration War (1640–68) and Spain's recognition of Portugal's independence. He also negotiated a French alliance through his marriage. However, the king was physically and mentally weak. In 1668, his brother Pedro conspired to have him declared incapable of ruling and took power as regent. His French wife, Queen Marie Françoise, received an annulment and married Pedro. Afonso spent the rest of his life and reign practically a prisoner.

Early life

At the age of three, Afonso suffered an illness that left him paralyzed on the left side of his body, also leaving him mentally unstable. His father created him 10th Duke of Braganza.

After the death of his eldest brother Teodósio, Prince of Brazil in 1653, Afonso became the heir apparent to the throne of the kingdom. He received also the crown-princely title 2nd Prince of Brazil.

Succession

Portrait of Infante Afonso; José de Avelar Rebelo, 1653.

He succeeded his father (João IV) in 1656 at the age of thirteen. His mother, Luisa of Medina-Sidonia, was named regent in his father's will. His mental instability and paralysis, plus his lack of interest in government, left his mother as regent for six years, until 1662. Afonso oversaw decisive military victories over the Spanish at Elvas (14 January 1659), Ameixial (8 June 1663) and Montes Claros (17 June 1665), culminating in the final Spanish recognition of sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza, on 13 February 1668 in the Treaty of Lisbon.

Colonial Affairs

Colonial affairs saw the Dutch conquest of Jaffnapatam, Portugal's last colony in Portuguese Ceylon (1658) and the cession of Bombay and Tangier to England (23 June 1661) as dowry for Afonso's sister, Catherine of Braganza, who had married King Charles II of England. English mediation in 1661 saw the Netherlands acknowledge Portuguese rule of Brazil in return for uncontested control of Ceylon.

In 1662, the Count of Castelo Melhor saw an opportunity to gain power at court by befriending the king. He managed to convince the king that his mother was out to steal his throne and exile her in Portugal. As a result, Afonso took control of the throne and his mother was sent to a convent.

Marriage

He married Marie Françoise of Nemours, the daughter of the Duke of Savoy in 1666, but the marriage was short-lived. Marie Françoise, or Maria Francisca in Portuguese, filed for an annulment in 1667 based on the impotence of the king. The Church granted her the annulment, and she married Afonso's brother, Pedro, Duke of Beja (the future Peter II).

Deposition

King Afonso VI imprisoned in the Palace of Sintra, by Alfredo Roque Gameiro.

That same year, Pedro managed to gain enough support to force the king to relinquish control of the government and he became Prince Regent in 1668. Afonso was exiled to the island of Terceira in the Azores for seven years, returning to mainland Portugal shortly before he died at Sintra in 1683.[1]

His trial[which trial? clarification needed] is the basis of João Mário Grilo's 1990 film, The King's Trial (O Processo do Rei).

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alphonso s.v. Alphonso VI.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 734. 

External links

Afonso VI of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 21 August 1643 Died: 12 September 1683
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
1656–1683
Succeeded by
Peter II
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