Abdul Hamid I

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Abdulhamid I I
عبد الحميد الاول
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Portrait of Abdülhamid I of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
Abdulhamid I of the Ottoman Empire
27th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign 21 January 1774 – 7 April 1789
Predecessor Mustafa III
Successor Selim III
Born 20 March 1725[1]
Died 7 April 1789(1789-04-07) (aged 64)[1]
Consorts Sineperver Valide Sultan
Nakşidil Valide Sultan
Ayşe Kadın
Hümaşah Kadın
Ruhşah Kadın
Binnaz Kadın
Nevres Kadın
Mehtabe Kadın
Mutebere Kadın
Şebsafa Kadın
Hasibe Kadın
Full name
Abdul Hamid bin Ahmed
Dynasty House of Osman
Father Ahmed III
Mother Şermi Kadın
Tughra

Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد اول‎, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i evvel; Turkish: Birinci Abdülhamit; 20 March 1725 – 7 April 1789)[1] was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1774 to 1789.

Early life

He was born in Istanbul, a younger son of Sultan Ahmed III (reigned 1703–1730) and his consort Şermi Kadın.[2] Ahmed III abdicated in favor of his nephew Mahmud I, who was succeeded by his brother Osman III, and Osman[2] by Ahmed's elder son Mustafa III. As a potential heir to the throne, Abdül Hamid was imprisoned in comfort by his cousins and older brother, as was customary. This lasted until 1767. During this period, he received his early education from his mother Rabia Şermi, who taught him history and calligraphy.[2]

When his brother Mustafa III died, Abdül Hamid succeeded him on 21 January 1774.

Reign

Abdül Hamid's long imprisonment had left him indifferent to state affairs and malleable to the designs of his advisors.[citation needed] Yet he was also very religious and a pacifist by nature. At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the Janissary Corps. The new Sultan told the Janissaries "There are no longer gratuities in our treasury, as all of our soldier sons should learn."

Despite his pacific inclinations, the Ottoman Empire was forced to renew the ongoing war with Russia almost immediately. This led to complete Turkish defeat at Kozludzha and the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed on 21 July 1774. The Ottomans ceded territory to Russia, and also the right to intervene on behalf of the Orthodox Christians in the Empire.

The Ottoman Army advances from Sofia, its largest garrison in Rumelia, in the year 1788.

Abdülhamid now sought to reform the Empire's armed forces. He enumerated the Janissary corps and tried to renovate it, and also the navy. He established a new artillery corps. He was also credited with the creation of the Imperial Naval Engineering School.[1]

Abdülhamid tried to strengthen Ottoman rule over Syria, Egypt, and Iraq.[1] However, slight successes against rebellions in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimean Peninsula, which had become nominally independent in 1774, but was in practice now controlled by Russia.

Russia repeatedly exploited its position as protector of Eastern Christians to interfere in the Ottoman Empire, and explicitly. Finally the Ottomans declared war against Russia in 1787. Austria soon joined Russia. Turkey held its own in the conflict, at first, but on 6 December 1788, Ochakov fell to Russia (all of its inhabitants being massacred). It is said that this sad defeat broke Abdül Hamid's spirit, as he died four months later.

In spite of his failures, Abdülhamid was regarded as the most gracious Ottoman Sultan.[citation needed] He personally directed the fire brigade during the Constantinople fire of 1782. He was admired by the people for his religious devotion, and was even called a Veli ("saint"). He also outlined a reform policy, supervised the government closely, and worked with statesmen.

In 1789, Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore sent an embassy to Abdülhamid, urgently requesting assistance against the British East India Company, and proposed an offensive and defensive alliance. Abdul Hamid informed the Mysori ambassadors that the Ottomans were still entangled and exhausted from the ongoing war with Russia and Austria.[citation needed]

Death

Abdülhamid died on 7 April 1789, at the age of sixty-four, in Constantinople. He was buried in Bahcekapi, a tomb he had built for himself.

He bred Arabian horses with great passion. One breed of Küheylan Arabians was named "Küheylan Abdülhamid" after him.

Family

Consorts

Abdul Hamid had eleven wives:

  • Ayşe Kadın[3][4] (died 1775, buried in New Mosque, Istanbul);
  • Ruhşah Kadın alias El-Hace Hatice[3][4] (died 1808, buried in Abdul Hamid I Mausoleum, Istanbul);[5]
  • Binnaz Kadın (died June 1823, buried in Abdul Hamid I Mausoleum, Istanbul);[5]
  • Nevres Kadın alias Hatice[3][4] (married 27 April 1774, died April 1797, buried in Hamidiye Street, Istanbul), formerly a Hazinedar;[5]
  • Mehtabe Kadın (married 14 August 1774), formerly a Kalfa;[5]
  • Mutebere Kadın (married 20 October 1774; died 16 May 1837,[3] buried in Abdul Hamid I Mausoleum, Istanbul);
  • Hümaşah Kadın[3][4] (married 1775, died 26 August 1778, buried in New Mosque, Istanbul);
  • Şebsafa Kadın alias Fatma[3][4] (died 1805, buried in Zeyrek Mosque, Eminönü, Istanbul);[5]
  • Nakşidil Sultan[5] (died 17 August 1817, buried in Nakşidil Sultan Mausoleum, Fatih Mosque, Istanbul; there have been speculations that she was a cousin of Napoleon's wife Josephine;[6] see Aimée du Buc de Rivéry).
  • Hasibe Kadın[3][4] alias Hasbiye;
  • Sineperver Sultan alias Ayşe (married 1776, died 11 December 1828, buried in Eyüp Sultan Mosque);[5]
Sons

His sons were:

  • Mustafa IV (reigned 1807–08) - with Sineperver;
  • Mahmud II (reigned 1808–39) - with Nakşidil;
  • Şehzade Sultan Numan;
  • Şehzade Sultan Abdullah (1 January 1776 - 1 January 1776);
  • Şehzade Sultan Mehmed (22 August 1776 - 20 February 1781) - with Hümaşah;
  • Şehzade Sultan Ahmed (8 December 1776 - 18 December 1778) - with Sineperver;
  • Şehzade Sultan Abdurrahman (8 September 1777 - 8 September 1777);
  • Şehzade Sultan Süleyman (13 March 1779 - 19 January 1786);
  • Şehzade Sultan Abdülaziz (19 August 1779 - 19 August 1779);
  • Şehzade Sultan Mehmed Nusret (20 September 1782 - 23 October 1785) - with Şebsafa;
  • Şehzade Sultan Seyfullah Murad (22 October 1783 - 21 January 1786);
Daughters

His daughters were:

  • Ayşe Dürrüşehvar Sultan (died 11 May 1831), married Damat Ahmed Nazif Bey (killed 21 May 1789), son of Hacı Selim Agha
  • Hatice Sultan (12 January 1776 - 8 November 1776);
  • Ayşe Sultan (30 July 1777 - 9 September 1777);
  • Esma Sultan (17 July 1778 - 4 June 1848), married 29 May 1792, Damat Küçük Hüseyin Pasha (died 8 January 1803), foster-brother of Sultan Selim III - Sineperver;
  • Rabia Sultan (20 March 1780 - 28 June 1780);
  • Aynişah Sultan (9 July 1780 - 28 July 1780);
  • Melikşah Sultan (28 January 1781 - 24 December 1781);
  • Rabia Sultan (10 August 1781 - 3 October 1782);
  • Fatma Sultan (12 December 1782 - 11 January 1786);
  • Alemşah Sultan (11 October 1784 - 10 March 1786);
  • Saliha Sultan (27 November 1786 - 10 April 1788);
  • Emine Sultan (4 February 1788 - 9 March 1791);
  • Hibetullah Sultan (16 March 1789 - 1 8 September 1841), married 3 February 1804, Damat Alaeddin Pasha (died at Scutari, January 1813), son of Damat Seyid Ahmed Pasha - with Şebsafa.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdulhamid I". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8. 
  2. ^ a b c Derman Sabancı (2002). "27. Osmanlı padişahı Sultan I. Abdülhamid'in eserleri" (PDF). Islamic Manuscripts. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Kocaaslan, Murat. I. Abdülhamid’in İstanbul’daki İmar Faaliyetleri. pp. 124–5. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Cunbur, Müjgan. I. Abdülhamid Vakfiyesi Ve Hamidiye Kütüphanesi. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Uluçay, Mustafa Çağatay (2011). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Ötüken, Ankara. pp. 105–9. 
  6. ^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren, "Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century", Journal of World History, vol. 17, No. 2, 2006

External links

Media related to Abdul Hamid I at Wikimedia Commons

Abdul Hamid I
Born: 20 March 1725 Died: 7 April 1789[aged 64]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mustafa III
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
21 Jan 1774 – 7 Apr 1789
Succeeded by
Selim III
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mustafa III
Caliph of Islam
21 Jan 1774 – 7 Apr 1789
Succeeded by
Selim III
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