5 stages of second language acquisition

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5 stages of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and developing fluency

There are 5 stages of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and developing fluency:

  1. Pre-production OR Silent/receptive - AT this first stage language learner has minimal comprehension, they do not verbalize, nod answers in 'yes' and 'no' and draw and point to objects.
  2. Early production - At second stage verbal language output is in single words, comprehension is limited, learner uses key words and familiar phrases and uses present-tense verbs
  3. Speech emergence - Learners starts to put words together in a sentence with some grammatical and punctuation errors, although comprehension is good but frequently students can misunderstand jokes.
  4. Intermediate Fluency - At this stage, learner makes few grammatical errors and has excellent language and vocabulary comprehension.
  5. Advanced Fluency - Finals and last stage of a language learner where they acquire near native level of speech comprehension.[1]


  1. ^ McREL International (2014-08-07), McREL - The Five Stages of Second Language Acquisition, retrieved 2017-12-04 
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