4th New Zealand Parliament

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Fourth Parliament of New Zealand
3rd Parliament 5th Parliament
Overview
Term 30 June 1866 – 13 September 1870
Election New Zealand general election, 1866
Government Second Stafford ministry (until 1869)
Third Fox ministry (from 1869)
House of Representatives
Members 70
Speaker of the House David Monro
Colonial Secretary William Fox
––Edward Stafford until 28 June 1869
Legislative Council
Members 35 (at start)
Speaker of the Council John Richardson
––Thomas Bartley until 1 July 1868
Sovereign
Monarch HM Victoria
Governor HE Rt. Hon Sir George Bowen
––HE Rt. Hon Sir George Grey until 5 February 1868

The 4th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.

Elections for this term were held in 61 electorates between 12 February and 6 April 1866 to elect 70 MPs. Parliament was prorogued in late 1870. During the term of this Parliament, two Ministries were in power. During this term, four Māori electorates were first established in 1867, and the first elections held in 1868.

Sessions

The 4th Parliament opened on 30 June 1866,[1] following the 1866 general election. It sat for five sessions, and was prorogued on 6 December 1875.[2]

Session Opened Adjouned
first 30 June 1866 8 October 1866
second 9 July 1867 10 October 1867
third 9 July 1868 20 October 1868
fourth 1 June 1869 3 September 1869
fifth 14 June 1870 13 September 1870

Historical context

Political parties had not been established yet; this only happened after the 1890 election. Anyone attempting to form an administration thus had to win support directly from individual MPs. This made first forming, and then retaining a government difficult and challenging.[3]

The 4th Parliament sat during the time of the New Zealand land wars, with the Second Taranaki War proceeding at the beginning of this Parliament's term. The Central Otago Gold Rush was coming to an end, but the West Coast Gold Rush had only just begun.

The capital had moved from Auckland to Wellington in 1865. Parliament was meeting in the Provincial Council buildings. With the increase in the number of Members of Parliament to 70, conditions became very crowded.[1] The original building "grew like topsy" until the end of the 19th century, and was consumed by fire on 11 December 1907.[4]

In 1868, the first elections were held in the four Māori electorates that were created in the previous year.[5]

Ministries

A few months before the 1866 general elections, Edward Stafford became Premier for the second time. On 16 October 1865, the second Stafford Ministry was formed. This lasted well into the term of the 4th Parliament on 28 June 1869.[6][7]

The premiership changed back to William Fox. The third Fox Ministry was in place from 28 June 1869 to 10 September 1872, well into the term of the 5th Parliament.[6][8]

Electorates

61 electorates were used for the 1866 elections. This was a significant increase from the 43 electorates used in the previous (1860–61) election, and resulted from the Representation Act 1865. The bill had its third reading[9] and was assented in October 1865.[10]

Initial composition of the 4th Parliament

70 seats were created across the 61 electorates.[11] The City of Wellington electorate was the only three-member electorate, and seven electorates were represented by two members. The remaining 53 electorates were represented by a single member.[12]

Member Electorate Province MP's term Election date
Armstrong, GeorgeGeorge Armstrong Akaroa Canterbury First 21 February[13]
Walker, LancelotLancelot Walker Ashley Canterbury Second 2 March[14]
Clark, ArchibaldArchibald Clark Auckland East Auckland Second 12 February[15]
Williamson, JamesJames Williamson Auckland West Auckland Second 13 February[16]
Williamson, JohnJohn Williamson Auckland West Auckland Third 13 February[16]
Ward, CrosbieCrosbie Ward Avon Canterbury Third 20 February[17]
Carleton, HughHugh Carleton Bay of Islands Auckland Fourth 5 March[18]
Cargill, JohnJohn Cargill Bruce Otago Third 7 March[18]
Burns, ArthurArthur Burns Caversham Otago Second 16 March[19]
Monro, DavidDavid Monro[20] Cheviot Canterbury Third 19 February[21]
FitzGerald, JamesJames FitzGerald City of Christchurch Canterbury Fourth 12 February[22]
Ormond, JohnJohn Ormond Clive Hawke's Bay Second 17 March[23]
Macandrew, JamesJames Macandrew Clutha Otago Fourth 9 March[24]
Cracroft Wilson, JohnJohn Cracroft Wilson Coleridge Canterbury Second 31 January[16]
Richmond, AndrewAndrew Richmond Collingwood Nelson Second 9 March[25]
Reynolds, WilliamWilliam Reynolds DunedinCity of Dunedin Otago Second 9 March[26]
Paterson, JamesJames Paterson DunedinCity of Dunedin Otago Second 9 March[27]
Haultain, TheodoreTheodore Haultain Franklin Auckland Third 22 February[28]
Graham, RobertRobert Graham Franklin Auckland Second 22 February[29]
Jollie, FrancisFrancis Jollie Gladstone Canterbury Second 23 February[30]
O'Neill, CharlesCharles O'Neill Goldfields Otago First 26 February[23]
Vogel, JuliusJulius Vogel Goldfields Otago Second 26 February[14]
Bradshaw, JamesJames Bradshaw Gold Field Towns Otago First 16 March[31]
Richmond, JamesJames Richmond Grey and Bell Taranaki Second 2 March[25]
Haughton, CharlesCharles Haughton Hampden Otago Second 5 March[28]
Hall, JohnJohn Hall Heathcote Canterbury Second 1 March[32]
Fitzherbert, WilliamWilliam Fitzherbert Hutt Wellington Third 28 February[22]
Ludlam, AlfredAlfred Ludlam Hutt Wellington Third 28 February[33]
Wood, WilliamWilliam Wood Invercargill Southland First 9 March[34]
Beswick, JosephJoseph Beswick Kaiapoi Canterbury First 16 February[31]
Hargreaves, EdwardEdward Hargreaves LytteltonTown of Lyttelton Canterbury First 3 March[28]
Baldwin, WilliamWilliam Baldwin Manuherikia Otago Second 17 March[35]
Hull, FrancisFrancis Hull Marsden Auckland First 5 March[36]
Bell, DillonDillon Bell Mataura Southland Third 10 March[37]
Ball, ThomasThomas Ball Mongonui Auckland First 20 March[35]
Parker, CharlesCharles Parker Motueka Nelson Second 2 March[27]
Moorhouse, William SeftonWilliam Sefton Moorhousea Mount Herbert Canterbury First 22 February[21]
McLean, DonaldDonald McLean Napier Hawke's Bay First 20 March[38][39]
Curtis, OswaldOswald Curtis NelsonCity of Nelson Nelson First 20 February[40]
Stafford, EdwardEdward Stafford NelsonCity of Nelson Nelson Third 20 February[41][13]
Wells, WilliamWilliam Wells NelsonSuburbs of Nelson Nelson Third 15 February[42]
Richardson, JohnJohn Richardson New Plymouth Taranaki Second 16 March[26]
Graham, GeorgeGeorge Graham[43] Newton Auckland Second 15 February[29]
O'Neill, JamesJames O'Neill Northern Division Auckland Third 14 February[23]
Henderson, ThomasThomas Henderson Northern Division Auckland Third 14 February[44]
Campbell, RobertRobert Campbell Oamaru Otago First 23 March[18]
Atkinson, ArthurArthur Atkinson[45] Omata Taranaki First 9 March[46]
O'Rorke, MauriceMaurice O'Rorke OnehungaTown of Onehunga Auckland Second 20 February[23]
Whitaker, FrederickFrederick Whitaker Parnell Auckland First 16 February[42]
de Quincey, PaulPaul de Quincey Pensioner Settlements Auckland First 15 February[47]
Beauchamp, ArthurArthur Beauchamp[48] Picton Marlborough First 14 March[37]
Brandon, AlfredAlfred Brandon Porirua Wellington Third 5 March[49]
Dick, ThomasThomas Dick Port Chalmers Otago Second 17 March[47]
Newman, JosephJoseph Newman Raglan Auckland First 23 February[50]
Watt, WilliamWilliam Watt Rangitiki Wellington First 8 March[17]
Hankinson, DonaldDonald Hankinson[51] Riverton Southland First 26 February[32]
Hepburn, GeorgeGeorge Hepburn Roslyn Otago First 22 March[44]
Stevens, EdwardEdward Stevens Selwyn Canterbury First 26 February[41]
Reid, DonaldDonald Reid Taieri Otago First 7 March[52]
Cox, AlfredAlfred Cox Timaru Canterbury Second 20 February[40]
Murison, WilliamWilliam Murison Waikouaiti Otago First 28 February[53]
Oliver, ArthurArthur Oliver Waimea Marlborough First 23 February[23][13]
Bunny, HenryHenry Bunny Wairarapa Wellington Second 3 March[19]
Eyes, WilliamWilliam Eyes Wairau Marlborough Second 23 February[54]
McNeil, AlexanderAlexander McNeil Wallace Otago First 6 April[38]
Bryce, JohnJohn Bryce Wanganui Wellington First 3 March[49]
Taylor, WilliamWilliam Taylor WellingtonCity of Wellington Wellington Second 1 March[55]
Featherston, IsaacIsaac Featherston WellingtonCity of Wellington Wellington Fourth 1 March[54]
Borlase, CharlesCharles Borlase WellingtonCity of Wellington Wellington First 1 March[31]
Moorhouse, William SeftonWilliam Sefton Moorhousea Westland Canterbury Fourth 16 March[21]

a Moorhouse was elected in both the Mount Herbert and Westland electorates. He chose to represent Westland.

Changes during term

There were numerous changes during the term of the 4th Parliament.

By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner
1866 Mount Herbert 27 July William Moorhouse Chose to represent Westland Thomas Potts
1866 Port Chalmers 15 December Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1867 City of Dunedin 19 January William Reynolds Resignation William Reynolds
1867 City of Christchurch 13 February James FitzGerald Resignation William Travers
1867 Avon 11 March Crosbie Ward Resignation William Reeves
1867 Manuherikia 27 April William Baldwin Resignation David Mervyn
1867 Wanganui 27 April John Bryce Resignation Henry Harrison
1867 Town of New Plymouth 29 April John Richardson Resignation Harry Atkinson
1867 City of Auckland West 24 May James Williamson Resignation Patrick Dignan
1867 Raglan 4 June Joseph Newman Resignation James Farmer
1867 Parnell 5 June Frederick Whitaker Resignation Charles Heaphy
1867 Port Chalmers 15 June Thomas Dick Resignation David Main
1867 Waimea 28 June Arthur Oliver Resignation Edward Baigent
1867 Lyttelton 1 July Edward Hargreaves Resignation George Macfarlan
1867 Kaiapoi 5 July Joseph Beswick Resignation John Studholme
1867 Picton 25 July Arthur Beauchamp Resignation William Adams
1867 Pensioner Settlements 5 August Paul de Quincey Resignation John Kerr
1867 Ashley 7 August Lancelot Walker Resignation Henry Tancred
1868 Collingwood 18 March Andrew Richmond Resignation Arthur Collins
1868 Westland Boroughs 3 April William Moorhouse Resignation William Harrison

Supplementary election, 1868

Westland North 9 April 1868[56] Timothy Gallagher
Westland South 6 April 1868[35] Edmund Barff

First Māori elections

Eastern Maori 15 April 1868[21] Tareha Te Moananui
Northern Maori 15 April 1868[57] Frederick Russell
Southern Maori 20 June 1868[58] John Patterson
Western Maori 1 May 1868[27] Mete Paetahi
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

4th Parliament (continued)

1868 Avon 8 June William Reeves Resignation William Rolleston
1868 Picton 11 June William Adams Resignation Courtney Kenny
1868 Rangitiki 22 June William Watt Resignation William Fox
1868 Franklin 2 July Robert Graham Resignation William Swan
1868 Waikouaiti 27 July William Murison Resignation Robert Mitchell
1868 Lyttelton[59] 2 November George Macfarlan Death John Peacock
1868 Timaru 20 November Alfred Cox Resignation Edward Stafford
1868 City of Nelson 24 December Edward Stafford Resignation Nathaniel Edwards
1869 Marsden 25 January[53] Francis Hull Resignation John Munro
1869 Roslyn 12 February George Hepburn Resignation Henry Driver
1869 City of Dunedin 5 March James Paterson Resignation Thomas Birch
1869 Newton 19 March George Graham Resignation Robert Creighton
1869 Waikouaiti 27 April Robert Mitchell Resignation Francis Rich
1869 Town of New Plymouth 28 April Harry Atkinson Resignation Thomas Kelly
1869 (1st) Wallace 30 April Alexander McNeil Resignation Cuthbert Cowan
1869 Oamaru 25 May Robert Campbell Resignation Charles Graham
1869 Taieri 19 June Donald Reid Resignation Henry Howorth
1869 (2nd) Wallace 17 September Cuthbert Cowan Resignation George Webster
1870 Bruce 21 March John Cargill Resignation James Brown
1870 Mongonui 30 March Thomas Ball Resignation Thomas Gillies
1870 Caversham 25 April Arthur John Burns Resignation James McIndoe
1870 Parnell 12 May Charles Heaphy Resignation Reader Wood
1870 Riverton 18 May Donald Hankinson Resignation Lauchlan McGillivray
1870 City of Christchurch 12 August William Travers Resignation William Moorhouse

Existing electorates

Ashley

Walker resigned in 1867. Henry Tancred won the subsequent 1867 by-election.

Auckland West

James Williamson resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by Patrick Dignan.

Avon

Ward resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by William Reeves, who himself resigned in 1868. William Rolleston won the subsequent 1868 by-election.

Bruce

Cargill resigned in 1870 and was succeeded by James Clark Brown.

Caversham

Burns resigned in 1870 and was succeeded by James McIndoe.

City of Christchurch

FitzGerald resigned in 1867 and was succeeded by William Travers, who himself resigned in 1870. William Sefton Moorhouse took the seat for the remaining months in 1870.

City of Dunedin

Paterson resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Thomas Birch.

City of Nelson

Stafford resigned in 1868 and was succeeded by Nathaniel Edwards.

Collingwood

Richmond resigned in 1868 and was succeeded by Arthur Shuckburgh Collins.

Kaiapoi

Beswick resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by John Studholme.

Manuherikia

Baldwin resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by David Mervyn.

Marsden

Hull resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by John Munro.

Mongonui

Ball resigned in 1870. He was succeeded by Thomas Gillies on 30 March 1870.

Mount Herbert

Moorhouse was elected in the Mount Herbert electorate on 22 February 1866.[21][60] He also stood in the Westland electorate and was returned 16 March 1866.[21][61] He chose to represent Westland.[62] A by-election was held on 27 July 1866 and Thomas Potts was returned unopposed.[63][64]

New Plymouth

Richardson resigned in 1867 and was succeeded by Harry Atkinson, who himself resigned in 1869. Thomas Kelly won the 1869 by-election.

Newton

Graham resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Robert James Creighton.

Northern Division

Henderson resigned in 1867. The 6 July 1867 by-election was won by Thomas Macfarlane.[65]

O'Neill resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Henry Warner Farnall.

Oamaru

Campbell resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Charles Christie Graham.

Omata

Atkinson resigned in 1867 and was succeeded in 1868 by Charles Brown, who himself resigned in 1870. Frederic Carrington was the successful candidate in the 1870 by-election.

Parnell

Whitaker resigned in 1867 and was succeeded by Charles Heaphy.

Pensioner Settlements

De Quincey resigned in 1867. The 5 August 1867 by-election was won by John Kerr. A second person, a Mr Jackson, was nominated, but the returning officer would not accept the nomination, as Jackson was not on the electoral roll. Thus, Kerr was declared elected unopposed.[66]

Picton

Beauchamp resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by William Adams, who himself resigned in 1868. Courtenay Kenny won the 1868 by-election.

Port Chalmers

Dick, who was elected on 17 March 1866, resigned on 15 October 1866. He successfully contested the 15 December 1866 by-election, but resigned again on 26 April 1867.[47] David Forsyth Main successfully contested the 1867 by-election.

Raglan

Newman resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by James Farmer.

Rangitīkei

Watt resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by William Fox, who won the 1868 by-election.

Roslyn

Hepburn resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by Henry Driver.

Taieri

Reid resigned in 1869. He was succeeded by Henry Howorth.

Timaru

Cox resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by Edward Stafford.

Town of Lyttelton

Hargreaves resigned in 1867.[28] He was succeeded by George Macfarlan, who won the 1867 by-election. Macfarlan died on 9 October 1868[67] and was succeeded by John Thomas Peacock in a 2 November 1868 by-election.[58]

Waikouaiti

Murison resigned in 1868 and was succeeded by Robert Mitchell. Mitchell himself resigned in the following year and was replaced by Francis Rich.

Waimea

Oliver resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by Edward Baigent.

Wallace

McNeil resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Cuthbert Cowan. Cowan himself resigned in the same year he got elected and was replaced by George Webster.

Westland

The Westland Representation Act 1867 introduced changes to the Waimea and Westland electorates. Their areas were reassigned and four electorates formed. Waimea lost some area, but continued to exist. Westland was abolished in 1867. A new electorate (Westland Boroughs) was established, and Moorhouse was transferred to it. Other new electorates, for which by-elections were to be held, were Westland North and Westland South.[68][21]

New electorate

Westland Boroughs

Westland Boroughs was established through the Westland Representation Act 1867, and Moorhouse transferred to it. He resigned in 1868, and William Henry Harrison won the resulting 1868 by-election.[21][28]

Westland North

Westland North was established through the Westland Representation Act 1867. Timothy Gallagher was its first representative, elected in the 9 April 1868 by-election. He resigned on 13 May 1870 and was succeeded by Thomas Kynnersley following a 2 July 1870 by-election.[56][69]

Westland South

Westland South was established through the Westland Representation Act 1867. Edmund Barff was its representative, elected in the 6 April 1868 by-election.[35]

Māori electorates

The first elections for the new Māori electorates were held in 1868.

Eastern Maori

Tareha te Moananui was the first representative for the Eastern Maori electorate.

Northern Maori

Frederick Nene Russell was the first representative for the Northern Maori electorate.

Southern Maori

John Patterson was the first representative for the Southern Maori electorate.

Western Maori

Mete Paetahi was the first representative for the Western Maori electorate.

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Opening of the NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle. XXV (83). 7 July 1866. p. 3. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  2. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 68.
  3. ^ King 2003, p. ?.
  4. ^ "History Buildings and grounds". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  5. ^ "Parliament timeline". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  6. ^ a b King 2003, p. 533.
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 33.
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 34.
  9. ^ "The Representation Bill". North Otago Times. V (89). 2 November 1865. p. 3. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  10. ^ "Digest of General Assembly Laws". Daily Southern Cross. XXI (2604). 22 November 1865. p. 5. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "General elections 1853–2005 – dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  12. ^ "The New Parliament". Otago Witness (751). 21 April 1866. p. 14. Retrieved 21 July 2010. 
  13. ^ a b c "Election Intelligence". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle. XXV (24). 22 February 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 145.
  15. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 100.
  16. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 148.
  17. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 146.
  18. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 99.
  19. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 98.
  20. ^ "The Elections". Otago Witness (747). 24 March 1866. p. 11. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Scholefield 1950, p. 127.
  22. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 106.
  23. ^ a b c d e Scholefield 1950, p. 130.
  24. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
  25. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 136.
  26. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 135.
  27. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 131.
  28. ^ a b c d e Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  29. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  30. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  31. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 96.
  32. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 111.
  33. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 120.
  34. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 149.
  35. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  36. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 115.
  37. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 95.
  38. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 124.
  39. ^ "The Napier election". Otago Witness (749). 7 April 1866. p. 5. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  40. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 102.
  41. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 140.
  42. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  43. ^ "Mr. George Graham - NZETC". Cyclopedia Company Limited. New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. 1902. p. 104. 
  44. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 113.
  45. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited 1908, p. 46.
  46. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
  47. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 103.
  48. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited 1906, p. 311.
  49. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  50. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 129.
  51. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited 1903, p. 790.
  52. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  53. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 128.
  54. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 105.
  55. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  56. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 108.
  57. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 137.
  58. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 132.
  59. ^ "Election of a Member for Lyttelton". The Star (148). 2 November 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  60. ^ "Election Intelligence". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle. XXV (26). 1 March 1866. p. 3. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  61. ^ "Representation of Westland". West Coast Times (158). 21 March 1866. p. 3. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  62. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 267.
  63. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 133.
  64. ^ "News of the Day". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle. XXV (97). 7 August 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  65. ^ "Northern Division Election". Daily Southern Cross. XXIII (3112). 8 July 1867. p. 4. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  66. ^ "PENSIONER SETTLEMENTS ELECTION. RETURN OF MR. KERR.". Daily Southern Cross. XXIII (3135). 6 August 1867. p. 3. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  67. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 122.
  68. ^ "Westland Representation Act 1867 (31 Victoriae 1867 No 48)". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 24 December 2010. 
  69. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 119.

References

  • Cyclopedia Company Limited (1902). The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Auckland Provincial District. Christchurch. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  • Cyclopedia Company Limited (1903). "Southland". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Otago & Southland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  • Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  • Cyclopedia Company Limited (1908). "Former Members Of The House Of Representatives". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Taranaki, Hawke’s Bay & Wellington Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  • King, Michael (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand (20 ed.). Auckland: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
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