24 cm SK L/40

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24 cm SK L/40
SMS Wettin NH 47897.jpg
Twin C/92 turret aboard SMS Wettin
Type Naval gun
Coastal artillery
Place of origin German Empire
Service history
In service 1898-1945
Used by German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Netherlands
Nazi Germany
Wars Boxer Rebellion
World War I
World War II
Production history
Designer Krupp
Designed 1894
Manufacturer Krupp
Produced 1898
Variants Krupp 24 cm L/40 K94
Skoda 24 cm L/40 K97
Skoda 24 cm L/40 K/01
Specifications
Weight 24–25.6 t (26.5–28.2 short tons)
Length 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)
Barrel length 8.8 m (28 ft 10 in)

Shell Separate loading cased charges and projectiles
Shell weight 140–151 kg (309–333 lb)
Caliber 24 cm (9.4 in) 40 caliber
Breech Horizontal sliding wedge
Recoil hydro-pneumatic
Elevation Naval Mounts: -5° to +30°
Coastal Artillery: -5° to +46°
Traverse -150° to +150°
Rate of fire 3 rpm
Muzzle velocity WWI: 690 m/s (2,300 ft/s)
WWII: 810 m/s (2,700 ft/s)
Maximum firing range WWI: 16.9 km (10.5 mi) at +30°
WWII: 26.6 km (16.5 mi) at +46°[1]

The 24 cm Schnelladekanone Länge 40, abbreviated as 24 cm SK L/40, was a German naval gun developed in the years before World War I that armed a number of the Imperial German Navy's pre-dreadnought battleships and armored cruisers. Later guns removed from these ships were converted to coastal artillery and were used during World War I and World War II. The actual bore diameter was 23.8 cm (9.4 in), but the classification system for artillery rounded up to the next highest centimeter.

History

The 24 cm SK L/40 was designed in 1894 and produced in 1898 by Krupp for the Imperial German Navy. Krupp also produced a variant of the 24 cm SK L/40 for the Austro-Hungarian Navy called the 24 cm L/40 K94 which armed coastal defense ships, pre-dreadnought battleships and armored cruisers. Skoda later produced the Škoda 24 cm L/40 K97 and the Škoda 24 cm L/40 K/01 under license.[2] Krupp 24 cm guns also armed coastal defense ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy.[3]

Construction

This was the first large caliber German naval gun to use a Krupp horizontal sliding wedge breech block and separate loading metallic cased propellant charges and projectiles.[4] Unlike other large naval guns of the time which used separate loading bagged charges and projectiles, this gun used charges inside of a brass cartridge case to provide obturation. The first twelve guns were constructed of A tube, two reinforcing layers of hoops and a jacket. Later guns had a third hoop added near the breech, which added 1,600 kg (3,500 lb) of weight.[4]

Naval Artillery

The 24 cm SK L/40 was the primary armament of two classes of pre-dreadnought battleships, the Kaiser Friedrich III-class and the Wittelsbach-class. It was also the primary armament of two unique armored cruisers, the SMS Fürst Bismarck and SMS Prinz Heinrich of the Imperial German Navy.[4]

German ship details:
  • Kaiser Friedrich III-class - The five ships of this class had a primary armament of four guns, which were mounted in two twin gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.
  • Wittelsbach-class - The five ships of this class had a primary armament of four guns, which were mounted in two twin gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.
  • SMS Fürst Bismarck - The primary armament of this ship was four guns, which were mounted in two twin gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.
  • SMS Prinz Heinrich - The primary armament of this ship was two guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.

The Krupp 24 cm L/40 K94 armed the Monarch-class coastal defense ships, the pre-dreadnought Habsburg-class battleships and the armored cruiser SMS Kaiser Karl VI of the Austro-Hungarian Navy.[4]

Austrian ship details:
  • Monarch-class - The three ships of this class had a primary armament of four guns, which were mounted in two twin gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.[5]
  • Habsburg-class - The three ships of this class had a primary armament of three guns, which were mounted in one twin gun turret fore and one single gun turret aft of the central superstructure.[6]
  • SMS Kaiser Karl VI - This ship had a primary armament of two K94 guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure. In 1916 Kaiser Karl VI was refitted with Skoda built 24 cm L/40 K97 guns.[7]

Krupp 24 cm guns were also mounted as primary armament on the Koningin Regentes-class of coastal defense ships and two unique coastal defense ships, the HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck and the HNLMS Marten Harpertszoon Tromp of the Royal Netherlands Navy.[3]

Dutch ship details:
  • Koningin Regentes-class - The three ships of this class had a primary armament of two guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.[8]
  • HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck - This ship had a primary armament of two guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.[9]
  • HNLMS Marten Harpertszoon Tromp - This ship had a primary armament of two guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.[10]

Coastal Artillery

During 1915-1916 the Kaiser Friedrich III-class and the Wittelsbach-class battleships were decommissioned and disarmed. The 24 cm SK L/40 guns salvaged from these ships were also converted to coastal artillery. Eight guns in four turrets from the Kaiser Friedrich III-class were emplaced at Libau. Four guns were emplaced at Battery Hamburg on Norderney. Lastly four guns were emplaced at Battery S2 on Sylt.[4] During World War II Battery Hamburg at Norderney was still in action and was moved to Cherbourg, where it saw action against Allied naval forces during the Bombardment of Cherbourg.[11][12]

Bibliography

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. 

References

  1. ^ DiGiulian, Tony. "Germany 24 cm/40 (9.4") SK L/40 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  2. ^ DiGiulian, Tony. "Austria-Hungary 24 cm/40 (9.4") K94 and K97 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  3. ^ a b DiGiulian, Tony. "Netherlands 24 cm/40 (9.45") - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. 
  5. ^ "MONARCH coast defence ships (1898) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  6. ^ "HABSBURG battleships (1902-1904) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  7. ^ "KAISER KARL IV armoured cruiser (1900) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  8. ^ "Koningin Regentes coast defence ships (1901-1904) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  9. ^ "Jacob van Heemskerck coast defence ship (1908) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  10. ^ "Marten Harpertzoon Tromp coast defence ship (1905) - Royal Dutch Navy (Netherlands)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  11. ^ "Gun Battery Hamburg". battlefieldsww2.com. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  12. ^ "70th Tank Battalion World War II History Battery Hamburg , Normandy Region, France - June 1944". www.robertsarmory.com. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 

External links

  • http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNGER_945-40_skc94.php
  • http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNAust_945-40_K94.php
  • http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNNeth_945-40.php
  • http://www.navypedia.org/ships/austrohungary/ah_cr_kaiser_karl_vi.htm
  • http://www.navypedia.org/ships/austrohungary/ah_bb_monarch.htm
  • http://www.navypedia.org/ships/austrohungary/ah_bb_habsburg.htm
  • http://battlefieldsww2.com/gun-battery-hamburg.html
  • http://www.robertsarmory.com/Battery-Hamburg-June-1944.htm
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