2028 Summer Olympics

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Games of the XXXIV Olympiad
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The 2028 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event. Bidding for the host city was originally scheduled to begin in 2019, with the winning bid scheduled to be announced in 2021. However, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) is considering a joint awarding plan for both the 2024 and the 2028 games. Under this proposal, the losing finalist for the 2024 games (either Los Angeles or Paris) will then be awarded the 2028 games at the 130th IOC Session in Lima, Peru, on 13 September 2017. The IOC met in Lausanne, Switzerland to discuss this option on 9 June 2017.[1] The International Olympic Committee has formally proposed electing the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time this year. The proposal was approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017 in Lausanne.[2]

Bidding process

On September 16, the International Olympic Committee announced five candidate cities for the 2024 games: Budapest, Hamburg, Los Angeles, Paris and Rome. The candidature process was announced at the same time.[3] The procedure consisted of three stages: Stage 1 – Vision, games concept and strategy; Stage 2 – Governance, legal and venue funding; and Stage 3 – Games delivery, experience and venue legacy.[4]

Budapest, Hamburg, and Rome eventually withdrew their bids, leaving only Los Angeles and Paris. A similar situation had already occurred during the bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics when four cities withdrew, resulting in a two-way race between Beijing, China and Almaty, Kazakhstan. On 3 April 2017 at the IOC convention in Denmark, Olympic officials met with bid committees from both Los Angeles and Paris to discuss the possibility of naming two winners in the competition to host the 2024 Summer Games. The IOC requested feedback on the formation of a working group that will consider giving 2024 to one city and 2028 to the other.[5] While both cities appeared initially opposed to this compromise,[6] Los Angeles has indicated that it would be willing to consider it if certain concessions are made after it was revealed that Paris was the "Favourite".[7]

On 9 June 2017, the IOC Executive Board met in Lausanne, Switzerland to discuss the 2024 and 2028 bid processes.[1] The International Olympic Committee then formally proposed electing the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time. This proposal was approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017.[2]

Former potential bids

The following were potential bids to the 2028 Games, before the International Olympic Committee announced that they will instead award it to the city who is not selected to host the 2024 Games between the two finalists, Los Angeles and Paris:

North America

Toronto's economic development committee voted against bidding for the 2024 games on 20 January 2014, citing a bid would cost the city $50 to 60 million. Toronto's mayor at the time, Rob Ford, suggested that a bid for the 2028 games may be more realistic. Toronto bid for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics (as well as undocumented failures to make final rounds for 1960, 1964 and 1976[8]), but lost to Atlanta and Beijing, respectively. Interest in bidding for the 2024 Summer Olympics was rekindled during the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto. Following the event, though, Toronto Mayor John Tory reaffirmed the decision not to submit a bid.[9] Vying to host the 2028 or 2032 Games is a possibility, depending on whether or not Calgary, host of the 1988 Winter Olympics, bids to host the 2026 Winter Olympics.[citation needed]
On 31 March 2014 a political commission looking at the possibility of a Mexican bid for the 2024 Olympics concluded that there were no economic or infrastructure conditions in Mexico for a bid to take place. However, a bid for the 2028 or 2032 Olympics might be a possibility. Of note, 2028 would mark the 60th anniversary of the 1968 Summer Olympics, which were held in Mexico City.[10]


"Budapest can present a credible, competitive application for hosting the 2028 Olympics", Zsolt Borkai, the president of the Hungarian Olympic Committee told Hungarian business daily Napi Gazdaság on 7 July 2014. A report announced that Budapest was planning to bid on the 2028 Summer Olympics and the 2024 Summer Olympics. He additionally stated that Budapest was going to host the 2017 European Youth Olympic Festival, which was going to be like a practice for the 2028 Summer Olympics. However, he also said that Budapest would need to solve serious concerns surrounding transportation and Olympics sports facilities.[11]
On 25 October 2013, Attila Szalay-Berzeviczy, head of the Budapest Olympics Movement (BOM), made a statement that Budapest had a "realistic chance" of hosting the 2028 Summer Olympics, but said Budapest would focus on a bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics first as a practice bid. Szalay-Berzeviczy also stated that the facilities in Hungary, such as transportation and sports venues, required significant work in advance of hosting any Olympics.[12][13]
In January 2017 a civil organization called Momentum Movement started a petition to have a referendum for Budapest residents if they want to organize the Summer Olympics in 2024 or not. Several opposition parties, such as Lehet Más a Politika (LMP), Együtt, Párbeszéd Magyarországért (PM), Magyar Szocialista Párt (MSZP) and Demokratikus Koalíció (DK) joined to the movement, as well as Magyar Kétfarkú Kutya Párt (MKKP), which also started a satiric poster campaign against the bid in February. Most of the opposition parties and civil organizations have criticized the government for the bid, accusing it with corruption and spending the money on the Olympic Games instead of developing health care, education and the transportation in Budapest. A total of 138,527 signatures is required to be collected from Budapestians until 17 February 2017 to start a referendum. The referendum would be held in Budapest and only the residents of the capital city would be able to cast a valid vote. If Budapest withdraws from the 2024 Olympic race, there could still be a chance for a 2028 bid.[14] On 22 February 2017 Budapest withdrew its bid to host the 2024 Summer Olympics, leaving only Los Angeles and Paris in the race.[15] However, Budapest's Olympic dreams are still alive-and-well and Budapest is considering a future bid for 2032 at the earliest. [16]
The former mayor of Berlin, Klaus Wowereit, had stated that Berlin was exploring a bid for the 2024 or 2028 Olympic Games.[17] Berlin hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and last bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics, but was eliminated in the second round with the Olympics awarded to Sydney, Australia. As polls in Berlin showed, 55% of Berlin's population supported the application to host the 2024 Games.[18] On 16 March 2015 the National Olympic Committee (DOSB) proposed Hamburg to be the candidate city from Germany for the 2024 Summer Olympics.[19] However on 29 November 2015 a referendum was held in which 51.6% of the citizens voted against a bid for the Olympics. Although this means that Germany was no longer in the running for hosting the 2024 Summer Olympics, Berlin could still bid to host the 2028 or 2032 Games, which would mark 96 years after they last hosted the Summer Olympics in 1936 and 60 years after Munich 1972.
Hamburg planned to bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics, and if they failed, to re-bid again at 2028. On 16 March 2015, the German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) chose Hamburg for the official bid for the International Olympic Committee.[20] In November 2015 the city held a referendum on withdrawing the potential bid. Although a majority 51.6 percent of residents voted against bidding for the Games 2024, with critics of the plan saying expected cost was too high,[21][22] a bid for the 2028 or 2032 games is still possible and also is the preferred solution of the DOSB for 2028 or 2032, which would mark 60 years after Munich 1972.[23]
In summer 2016, an Olympic bid for the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area was suggested. The area includes the Ruhr agglomeration and close-by large cities like Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund and Essen. The bid would appeal to the new Olympic spirit of more regional, democratic and polycentric bids, fostering urban development.[24] A high acceptance of 68 % among local citizens was reported by a Mentefactum survey in September 2016.[25]
Democratic Party's mayor of Milan, Giuseppe Sala, said that Milan could likely present a bid to host 2028 or 2032 Games in case Rome withdraws its candidature for the 2024 Olympics.[26] Rome withdrew its 2024 Olympic Games bid on 21 September 2016.[27] On 4 October 2016, Governor of Lombardy Region, Roberto Maroni, said he met CONI President, Giovanni Malagò, proposing Milan and its surrounding territories as Italian candidate city for 2028 Olympics, in the case that Los Angeles gets the 2024 Summer Olympics. The regional government would be ready to collaborate with the Italian National Olympic Committee.[28][29] Milan is selected to host the 132nd IOC Session in 2019 where the host city of the 2026 Winter Olympics will be determined.
Mayor of Naples, Luigi De Magistris, said that the city is getting ready to be a likely candidate for the 2028 Olympics. The Olympic Summer Games would represent another major opportunity for Naples after having hosted 2019 Summer Universiade.[30][31]
On 29 October 2012, the Dutch cabinet, which was newly formed in 2012, announced that the government would no longer be supporting for the 2028 Summer Olympics, and that they wanted "Ambitions to get Dutch sports on an Olympic level, but without getting the Olympic Games to the Netherlands". The Dutch government consisting of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Labour Party (PvdA) agreed in a discussion that the games were not going to get support.[32] On 13 April 2014, the possible postponement of The Netherlands to host the 2028 Summer Olympics was reconfirmed, as Henk Stokhof, head Department of Sports at City of Amsterdam, said during the SportAccord International Convention in Belek that the possible Amsterdam bid for 2028 Olympics was 'cut short due to fears of the cost of the bid'. However, he also said that the bid could be revived later, which the bid could be decided whether or not it would be done in the future as far as 2019 or 2020.[33]
Rotterdam was to be the alternative option of the Amsterdam bid in the 2028 Summer Olympics. But with the Amsterdam bid being postponed, Rotterdam was also postponed.
If Amsterdam does plan and get to host the 2028 Summer Olympics, then it would mark the 100th anniversary of the 1928 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in the same city.
Kazan hosted the 2015 World Aquatics Championships and the 2013 Summer Universiade. It will also be one of the host cities for the 2018 World Cup. The city has dubbed itself the "sports capital of Russia." "The door is closing and the Russian Olympic Committee, as far as I know, has no intention to put in a bid for the 2024 summer games," said Popov. "I don't think Kazan will bid for '24 but maybe for the future, '28." A lot of infrastructure was built for past events. Russia last hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1980, in Moscow, as the Soviet Union.[34]
On 18 October 2013, Mikhail Radko, the leader of the group considering a possible 2024 Summer Olympics or 2028 Summer Olympics bid for Saint Petersburg told to Around the Rings (ATR) publication that the city is most likely going to bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics, but mentioned that the city may change to the 2028 bid for which it may have a better chance.[35] Radko also wrote a letter to the public specifically mentioning about the 2028 Summer Olympics bid for Saint Petersburg, saying that the place was an 'open city' for the Olympics.[36] However, St. Petersburg may be a likely candidate for 2032.
Dmitry Chernyshenko, the organizer of the 2014 Winter Olympics, says there's a huge potential in bringing the games back to Sochi. He revealed that he wants Sochi to follow the example of Beijing which will be the first city to host a summer and winter games. Sochi would need to build many facilities to hold the games, although some indoor arenas from the Winter Olympics could conceivably be repurposed.[37]
Ana Botella, Mayor of Madrid, confirmed that the city will not take part in the competition for 2024 Olympic Games after three failed consecutive bids (2012, 2016 and 2020, losing to London, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo respectively). Despite this, all sporting projects and infrastructure of the 2020 Olympic bid would be finished on the date scheduled. However, Madrid could be a likely candidate for 2028 or 2032, which would mark the 40th anniversary of the last time Spain hosted the Olympics in Barcelona in 1992.[38][39][40]


On 6 October 2014, Suh Byung-Soo, the Mayor of Busan, has confirmed that the city will be planning to bid for the 2028 Summer Olympics, noting that the city has matured on its capacity for hosting global events, and that the city will announce its bid to the International Olympic Committee in 2020. The mayor also said that 2028 will mark the 40th anniversary of the 1988 Summer Olympics that were hosted in the South Korean capital city Seoul, and is the last Summer Olympics to be held in South Korea.[41]
Busan had planned to bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics in 2005. However, because Pyeongchang, South Korea won the 2018 Winter Olympics in 2011, officials pushed the bid to 2024 Summer Olympics, believing that the bid would be too close to each other as the same country.[dubious ][citation needed] But in 2013, with Tokyo, Japan being awarded the 2020 Summer Olympics and the games again being in East Asia, Busan further pushed their bid to 2028.[42][43] Busan also had thought of bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but the city dropped the idea because of Pyeongchang's bid for the 2014 winter games.[44]
Officials in Busan said that the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo would help boost tourism in Busan if they were to host the 2028 Summer Olympics, and also state that they have several existing venues that could be used.[45] Incheon has stated that as they improve their status as a city, they could be able to handle a co-hosted Olympic Games, since they could re-use their sport facilities.
Busan hosted the 1997 East Asian Games, 2002 Asian Games, and acted as one of the venues for the 2002 FIFA World Cup. During the 1988 Summer Olympics hosted by Seoul, Busan was the site of the games' sailing (then yachting) events.[46]
In February 2016 Thani Al-Kuwari, secretary-general of the Qatar Olympic Committee, said that the country would unquestionably bid on a future Olympics. AFP reported that at a sports conference in Doha Al-Kuwari said, “The vision and the target is to host one of the Olympics one day. So we are hoping to have one day, you never know, Maybe 2028.” Doha bid for the 2016 and 2020 Olympics, both times it failed to become a candidate. Qatar hosted the 2015 World Men's Handball Championship, the 2015 AIBA World Boxing Championships and the 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships, and will host the 2023 FINA World Aquatics Championships, and 2022 FIFA World Cup.[47]
Tunku Tan Sri Imran Tuanku Ja’afar, the president of Olympic Council of Malaysia have expressed his intention of having a dual host bid for 2028 or 2032."Doing it all on our own may be beyond us but under the new Olympic reform agenda, the IOC allow twin bids. I do see a joint bid between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore in the future,” [48] IOC president, Thomas Bach also have been reported of hoping the Olympics to be held in South-East Asia.[49][50] Singapore National Olympic Council have been remarked that it was an "...interesting concept."[51] Malaysia have since held a Commonwealth Games in 1998 while Singapore have held Youth Olympic Games in 2010. Both countries acknowledged that infrastructure is not a problem but lack of world class athletes and magnitude of the Games have been noted as problems of having a single host bid.[52]


In March 2011, the Moroccan government confirmed that it would begin construction of an 80,000-seat stadium and would bid for the 2028 instead of 2024.[53]
A number of Kenyan officials including Ochilo Ayacko (former Minister of Sports) to the former Prime Minister Raila Odinga and the former Vice President Kalonzo Musyoka had stated that they had intentions to bring the 2028 Summer Olympics or the 2032 Summer Olympics to Kenya. To further their support, they had also appointed Moi International Sports Centre (MISC) in Kasarani, to take charge of the sport facilities in Kenya.[54] The officials, however, also mentioned the considerable difficulties they were going to have to face with facilities and financing.
International Business also stated that both the 2024 Summer Olympics and the 2028 Summer Olympics Nairobi planned to bid on and the 2032 Summer Olympics Nairobi was planning to bid on will be 'a long shot', according to Ed Hula, the chief editor of Around the Rings.[55]
The Boston Globe reported on 11 January 2015, that Johannesburg was continuing with their bid for the 2028 Summer Games. Johannesburg hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup Final, and South Africa unsuccessfully bid for the 2004 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Athens.[56]

South America

Buenos Aires bid to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. It was stated that the successful bid could lead to a bid for the 2028 or 2032 Summer Olympic Games. The city also hosted the 125th IOC Session in 2013. Rio de Janeiro staged the first Summer Olympic Games in South America in 2016. Buenos Aires could potentially be the second city on the continent to stage the event. Buenos Aires bid to host the 1936, 1956, 1968, and 2004 Summer Olympics, but lost to Berlin, Melbourne, Mexico City and Athens respectively.[57] On 4 July 2013 Buenos Aires was elected as the host city of the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.[58] In July 2016, Thomas Bach, president of the International Olympic Committee, said that "Buenos Aires is able to present a successful bid for 2028 or 2032". In January 2017 the Argentinian Olympic Committee presented Buenos Aires as candidate to host the 2023 Pan American Games. Buenos Aires will compete with the city of Santiago de Chile.[59]


Brisbane is considering a bid for the 2032 Summer Olympics. The city has the backing of the AOC and has support from IOC vice president John Coates. The city hosted the 1982 Commonwealth Games, the 2001 Goodwill Games and the annual Brisbane International and State of Origin. Brisbane made a bid to host the 1992 Olympics, however they were awarded to Barcelona.[60]
On 22 August 2016, Brisbane consented to provide $870k to conduct a year-long Olympics feasibility study.[61]

South East Queenland is considering a bid for 2032 Summer Olympics. Olympic Study for 2032 Summer Olympics for Brisbane.

The former Premier of Victoria, Denis Napthine, has backed a potential bid from Melbourne for the 2028 Summer Olympics.[62] Melbourne hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, and Australia hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Melbourne had also unsuccessfully bid for the 1996 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta in 1990. The AOC and IOC have preferenced Brisbane as being the next candidate city, however Melbourne would bid should Brisbane pull out of the race. If Brisbane bid and failed then Melbourne would move forward with a 2032 Olympics bid. Discussion has also raised the possibility of a joint Australia bid, staging the main event in Melbourne whilst co-hosting some outdoor events in Brisbane and Perth.[citation needed]

Cancelled potential bids

Representative Wang Xiaoshu, a municipal political adviser in Shanghai, said that a Shanghai Olympics in 2028 would 'raise its profiles', improve Shanghai’s global influence, and that the city is “fully capable and must keep striving to become a platform for major international dialogues", and pointed out the Expo 2010 in Shanghai as an example. Wang also said that the Olympics in China 'would improve the society, culture, and the ecology in the city'.[63] Wang said he'd like to see the Olympics take place as a celebration for the 80th anniversary for founding the People's Republic of China.[64][65] However, Chen Deying, a Shanghai member in the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference said the otherwise, claiming that there are more necessary things to spend the nation's efforts and financial resources on such as the people's quality of life and economic investment rather than hosting a huge event such as the Summer Olympics.[66] The Chinese capital of Beijing is to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, and previously hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics.
A public opinion poll took place in Vienna, from 7–9 March 2013. On 12 March 2013, Vienna's mayor Michael Häupl announced that nearly 72% voted against a bid and, as a result, Vienna will not bid for 2028.[67][68]



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External links

  • International Olympic Committee

Candidature Files

Los Angeles

  • Stage 1: Vision, Games Concept and Strategy
  • Stage 2: Governance, Legal and Venue Funding
    • Budget released Dec. 2nd, 2016
  • Stage 3: Games Delivery, Experience and Venue Legacy
    • Sustainability Vision


  • Stage 1: Vision, Games Concept and Strategy
  • Stage 2: Governance, Legal and Venue Funding
  • Stage 3: Games Delivery, Experience and Venue Legacy
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