2019 World Series

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2019 World Series
2019 World Series Logo.svg
Team (Wins) Manager(s) Season
Washington Nationals (4) Dave Martinez 93–69 (.574)
Houston Astros (3) A. J. Hinch 107–55 (.660)
Dates October 22–30
MVP Stephen Strasburg (Washington)
Umpires Lance Barksdale, Gary Cederstrom (crew chief), Doug Eddings, Sam Holbrook, James Hoye, Alan Porter (Games 1–2),[note 1] Jim Wolf (Games 3–7)[note 1][1]
ALCS Houston Astros defeated New York Yankees, 4–2
NLCS Washington Nationals defeated St. Louis Cardinals, 4–0
Broadcast
Television Fox (United States – English)
Fox Deportes (United States – Spanish)
MLB International (International - English)
TV announcers Joe Buck, John Smoltz, Ken Rosenthal and Tom Verducci (Fox)
Rolando Nichols, Edgar Gonzalez and Carlos Álvarez (Fox Deportes)
Matt Vasgersian and Buck Martinez (MLB International)
Radio ESPN (English)
Unanimo Deportes (Spanish)
KBME (HOU)
WJFK-FM (WAS)
Radio announcers Dan Shulman, Chris Singleton and Buster Olney (ESPN)
Beto Ferreiro and Orlando Hernández (Unanimo Deportes)
Robert Ford and Steve Sparks (HOU)
Charlie Slowes and Dave Jageler (WAS)
← 2018 World Series 2020 →

The 2019 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2019 season. The 115th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff played between the American League champion Houston Astros and the National League champion Washington Nationals. The series was played from October 22 to October 30.[2] The Nationals won the series, four games to three, to secure their first title in franchise history.[3] Washington pitcher Stephen Strasburg was named the World Series Most Valuable Player (MVP) after earning two wins in the series.[4]

While the Astros had home-field advantage for the series, the road team won all seven games.[5] It was the first best-of-seven postseason series in any of the major North American sports leagues in which the visiting team won all seven games, surpassing the previous high of five.[6]

For the third straight year, MLB sold presenting sponsorships to all its postseason series; as with the 2017 and 2018 World Series, this World Series was sponsored by YouTube TV and was officially known as the 2019 World Series presented by YouTube TV.[7]

Background

Astros manager A. J. Hinch

This was the first World Series appearance for the franchise that began its existence as the Montreal Expos in 1969, and moved to Washington in 2005 as the Nationals. The Nationals were also the last team from the 1969 expansion class (which also included the Kansas City Royals, Milwaukee Brewers - who began as the Seattle Pilots - and San Diego Padres) to earn a trip to the series. The World Series appearance also means that all National League teams have been to the World Series at least once. The only American League team not to reach the Fall Classic is the Seattle Mariners, who were part of the 1977 expansion. The Astros and Nationals had never met in the postseason before, despite Houston's stint in the National League from 1962-2012. The Astros and Nationals did not play an interleague game in 2019, and last faced each other during the 2017 regular season. The two teams share a Spring training site in West Palm Beach, Florida, and opened the 2019 Spring training schedule against each other.[8] This was the second World Series to feature two expansion teams, the first being in 2015 between the Kansas City Royals and New York Mets.[note 2][9]

Washington Nationals

The Nationals had an 82–80 (.506) win-loss record in 2018, and started the 2019 season with a 19–31 (.380) record. Second-year manager Dave Martinez began to receive public pressure to be fired by the Nationals.[10] The team engineered a turnaround and finished the season in second place in the National League East, four games behind the Atlanta Braves, ending the year with a 93–69 (.574) record.[11] The Nationals were one of two teams to qualify for the playoffs as a wild card team from the National League.[12] Martinez had missed three games in September due to a cardiac catheterization procedure to treat angina.[13]

The Nationals defeated the Milwaukee Brewers at home in the National League Wild Card Game, coming behind from a 3–1 deficit in the eight inning to win 4–3.[14] The Nationals then defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers, who had won the previous two National League pennants, in the National League Division Series.[15] The Nationals were behind two games to one, and won their second and third elimination games of the postseason to take the best-of-five series. The postseason series win was the first in Washington Nationals history.[note 3] In the National League Championship Series, the Nationals swept the St. Louis Cardinals (who had defeated the Braves in the Division Series round) in four games to secure the first pennant in franchise history (including their time as the Montreal Expos from 1969 to 2004). It was the first World Series appearance for a Washington, D.C., team since 1933. The franchise known as the Washington Senators were a charter franchise of the American league who played in D.C. from 1901–1960 before moving to Minnesota to become the Twins. The Senators' name was passed to an expansion franchise that began play the year following year, 1961, and that team played in D.C. through 1971 before moving to Texas as the Rangers. There was no major league baseball team in Washington, D.C. between 1972–2004.[16]

Houston Astros

The Astros won the 2017 World Series, the franchises' first World Series championship.[17] They lost in the 2018 American League Championship Series to the Boston Red Sox.[18] The Astros finished the 2019 regular season with a 107–55 (.660) win-loss record, which was the best in baseball. They won the American League West.[19]

The Astros played the Tampa Bay Rays, who won the American League Wild Card Game, in the American League Division Series. Houston defeated the Rays in five games.[20] In the American League Championship Series, the Astros defeated the New York Yankees in six games.[21] This was Houston's third World Series appearance and second in three years.[22]

Summary

Washington won the series, 4–3.

Game Date Score Location Time Attendance 
1 October 22 Washington Nationals – 5, Houston Astros – 4 Minute Maid Park 3:43 43,339[23] 
2 October 23 Washington Nationals – 12, Houston Astros – 3 Minute Maid Park 4:01 43,357[24] 
3 October 25 Houston Astros – 4, Washington Nationals – 1 Nationals Park 4:03 43,867[25] 
4 October 26 Houston Astros – 8, Washington Nationals – 1 Nationals Park 3:48 43,889[26] 
5 October 27 Houston Astros – 7, Washington Nationals – 1 Nationals Park 3:19 43,910[27] 
6 October 29 Washington Nationals – 7, Houston Astros – 2 Minute Maid Park 3:37 43,384[28] 
7 October 30 Washington Nationals – 6, Houston Astros – 2 Minute Maid Park 3:42 43,326[29]

Game summaries

Game 1

Juan Soto was 3-for-4 with three RBIs in Game 1.[30]
October 22, 2019 7:08 pm (CDT) at Minute Maid Park in Houston, Texas 73 °F (23 °C), roof closed
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Washington 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 5 9 0
Houston 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 10 0
WP: Max Scherzer (1–0)   LP: Gerrit Cole (0–1)   Sv: Sean Doolittle (1)
Home runs:
WSH: Ryan Zimmerman (1), Juan Soto (1)
HOU: George Springer (1)
Attendance: 43,339
Boxscore

The Nationals wore their alternate road blue jerseys for Game 1.[31] Before the national anthem, a moment of silence took place in honor of umpire Eric Cooper,[32] who had died on October 20. Former Astro Brian McCann threw out the ceremonial first pitch to former teammate Evan Gattis.[32] Max Scherzer started for the Nationals, while Gerrit Cole started for the Astros. In the bottom of the first, Yuli Gurriel hit a two-run double with two outs, giving the Astros a 2–0 lead. In the top of the second, Ryan Zimmerman hit a solo home run to cut the Astros' lead to 2–1. Juan Soto led off the top of the fourth inning with a home run to tie the game, 2–2. Soto became the fourth-youngest player to hit a home run in a World Series; Andruw Jones in 1996 was the youngest to date.[33] Adam Eaton drove in a run in the top of the fifth, followed two batters later by a Soto two-run double, giving the Nationals a 5–2 lead.[34]

Scherzer exited after pitching five innings, having allowed two runs on five hits while striking out seven batters. Cole went seven innings, allowing five runs on eight hits while striking out six. After Nationals pitcher Patrick Corbin pitched a scoreless sixth, George Springer led off the bottom of the seventh with the 14th postseason home run of his career, off Nats reliever Tanner Rainey.[35] He also broke a World Series record held by Reggie Jackson and Lou Gehrig, with a home run in five consecutive World Series games,[36] dating back to Game 4 of the 2017 World Series. The Astros loaded the bases later in the inning with two walks off of Rainey and an infield single off of Daniel Hudson, but Hudson struck out Yordan Álvarez to prevent any more scoring. In the bottom of the eighth, pinch-hitter Kyle Tucker singled, advanced to second on a fly ball by Aledmys Díaz, and Springer drove in another run with a double, pulling the Astros to within one, 5–4. Sean Doolittle, the Nationals' fifth pitcher of the game, got the final out of the eighth inning and retired the side in order in the bottom of the ninth, concluding matters when Carlos Correa lined out to Víctor Robles to preserve the win. Doolittle earned his second save of the postseason and the underdogs took the series lead, marking the first time in franchise history that the Nationals won a World Series game.[30]

Game 2

Stephen Strasburg earned the win in Game 2.[37]
October 23, 2019 7:07 pm (CDT) at Minute Maid Park in Houston, Texas 73 °F (23 °C), roof closed
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Washington 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 1 12 14 2
Houston 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 9 1
WP: Stephen Strasburg (1–0)   LP: Justin Verlander (0–1)
Home runs:
WSH: Kurt Suzuki (1), Adam Eaton (1), Michael A. Taylor (1)
HOU: Alex Bregman (1), Martín Maldonado (1)
Attendance: 43,357
Boxscore

Gymnast and Houston native Simone Biles threw out the ceremonial first pitch of Game 2.[38] Starting pitchers were Stephen Strasburg for the Nationals, who wore their alternate road blue jerseys, and Justin Verlander for the Astros, who wore home white. After a walk and a single to start the game, Anthony Rendon drove in two runs with a double. Alex Bregman tied the game with a two-run home run in the bottom of the first. In the top of the second inning, Verlander recorded the 200th postseason strikeout of his career setting a new major league record, passing John Smoltz.[39]

Leading off the top of the seventh, Kurt Suzuki hit a home run to put the Nationals ahead, 3–2. Verlander exited one batter later; he was charged with four runs on seven hits while striking out six batters, and suffered the loss. Washington scored five more runs in the seventh off of Ryan Pressly, extending their lead to 8–2. With a six-run lead, Strasburg was removed before the bottom of the seventh, having held the Astros to two runs on seven hits while striking out seven. In the eighth inning, a two-run home run by Adam Eaton plus an RBI by Asdrúbal Cabrera extended the Nationals' lead to nine runs. A ninth-inning home run by Michael A. Taylor off of Chris Devenski pushed the lead to 12–2. Martín Maldonado hit a home run in the bottom of the ninth off of Nationals reliever Javy Guerra, but the Nationals completed their eighth consecutive playoff win.[37]

Game 3

Michael Brantley was 2-for-4 with two RBIs in Game 3.[40]
October 25, 2019 8:07 pm (EDT) at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C. 64 °F (18 °C), partly cloudy
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Houston 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 11 0
Washington 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 2
WP: Josh James (1–0)   LP: Aníbal Sánchez (0–1)   Sv: Roberto Osuna (1)
Home runs:
HOU: Robinson Chirinos (1)
WSH: None
Attendance: 43,867
Boxscore

This was the first World Series game played in Washington, D.C., since October 7, 1933, which was the clinching Game 5 of the New York Giants' win over the Washington Senators.[41] Chad Cordero of the 2005 Nationals threw out the ceremonial first pitch to former teammate Brian Schneider; former astronaut Buzz Aldrin also threw a ceremonial pitch.[42] Aníbal Sánchez started for the Nationals, who wore their home alternate blue jerseys, while Zack Greinke started for the Astros, who wore their road grey uniforms. In the second inning, Josh Reddick drove in Carlos Correa as Houston scored the game's first run. In the third inning, José Altuve doubled and advanced to third on an error, then scored on an infield single by Michael Brantley, giving the Astros a 2–0 lead. The Nationals loaded the bases with two outs in the bottom of the third, but were unable to score. In the bottom of the fourth, Ryan Zimmerman walked then was driven in by a Víctor Robles triple, cutting the Astros' lead to 2–1.[43]

Houston restored their two-run lead in the top of the fifth, as Altuve doubled and was then driven in by Brantley. Greinke left with two outs in the bottom of the fifth, having allowed one run on seven hits while striking out six batters. The Astros extended their lead to 4–1 in the top of the sixth, as Robinson Chirinos hit a home run off of the left field foul pole netting. Sánchez lasted until one out in the top of the sixth, having allowed four runs on 10 hits while striking out four. With no additional scoring though the middle of the ninth, the Astros brought in closer Roberto Osuna to pitch the bottom of the ninth. Osuna allowed a one-out single to Adam Eaton, but otherwise set down the Nationals; he struck out Juan Soto looking to end the National's eight-game playoff winning streak. Osuna earned his second save this postseason, as Houston pulled within a game of Washington, 2–1. This became the first World Series to begin with three games won by the road team since 1996, when the first five games were won by the road team.[44]

Game 4

Alex Bregman had five RBIs in Game 4, four on a grand slam.[45]
October 26, 2019 8:07 pm (EDT) at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C. 63 °F (17 °C), overcast
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Houston 2 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 8 13 1
Washington 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 0
WP: José Urquidy (1–0)   LP: Patrick Corbin (0–1)
Home runs:
HOU: Robinson Chirinos (2), Alex Bregman (2)
WSH: None
Attendance: 43,889
Boxscore

The ceremonial first pitch was thrown out by a Nationals Youth Baseball Academy scholar-athlete.[46][47] Patrick Corbin started for the Nationals and José Urquidy started for the Astros.[48] Washington again wore their blue alternate home jerseys,[49] with Houston again wearing their road grey uniforms.[50] The Astros scored early, recording two runs in the first inning.[51] Robinson Chirinos hit a two-run home run in the fourth inning, extending Houston's lead to 4–0.[51] Urquidy exited after five innings, having held the Nationals scoreless, retiring nine straight batters before being pulled out.[51]

Washington scored a run in the bottom of the sixth, coming on a Juan Soto ground-out with the bases loaded and one out. Corbin pitched six innings, allowing four runs on seven hits while striking out five. A grand slam by Alex Bregman in the seventh inning extended Houston's lead to 8–1.[52] It was the 20th ever World Series grand slam and first since Addison Russell hit one in Game 6 of the 2016 World Series.[53] With no further scoring, the Astros evened the series, 2–2, ensuring a sixth game in Houston. This was the fifth time a World Series started with the road team's winning the first four games, the most recent occurrence having been 1996.[54]

Game 5

The Astros batting in the top of the 2nd inning of Game 5
President Donald J. Trump waves to the crowd
October 27, 2019 8:07 pm (EDT) at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C. 72 °F (22 °C), clear
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Houston 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 7 10 0
Washington 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 4 0
WP: Gerrit Cole (1–1)   LP: Joe Ross (0–1)
Home runs:
HOU: Yordan Álvarez (1), Carlos Correa (1), George Springer (2)
WSH: Juan Soto (2)
Attendance: 43,910
Boxscore

The ceremonial first pitch was thrown out by chef José Andrés.[46][55] The starting pitchers were Gerrit Cole for Houston and Joe Ross for Washington. Max Scherzer was scheduled to start for Washington, but was scratched about three hours before the game due to neck spasms.[56] The Nationals once again wore their blue alternate jerseys,[57] while the Astros wore their road grey uniforms.[58]

A two-run home run by Yordan Álvarez in the top of the second inning gave the Astros an early lead. In the top of the fourth, Carlos Correa hit another two-run home run, extending Houston's lead to 4–0. Ross pitched for five innings, allowing four runs on five hits while striking out one batter. Juan Soto narrowed the lead to 4–1 with a solo home run in the bottom of the seventh. Yuli Gurriel drove in a run in the top of the eighth to restore the four-run lead. Cole left after seven innings, having held the Nationals to one run on three hits while striking out nine. George Springer's two-run home run in the top of the ninth stretched Houston's lead to 7–1. With Ryan Pressly allowing no baserunners in the bottom of the ninth, the Astros moved to within a victory of their second title in three years. This became the third World Series—along with 1906 and 1996—to have the road team win the first five games.[59]

Home plate umpire Lance Barksdale's strike zone during the game drew attention,[60] with some sports journalists, including Jeff Passan, increasing their appeals to MLB for a computerized strike zone.[61][62] Two women in the crowd flashed their bare chests during the game—briefly visible on television—in an attempt to raise awareness for their website, claiming proceeds from the site "will be going to women with breast cancer".[63] Along with a third woman, they were removed from the game and were banned from all MLB stadiums "indefinitely".[63] U.S. President Donald Trump was booed and "chants of 'Lock him up!' broke out in some sections" when he and wife Melania were introduced before the game.[64] This led to some discussion in the media of the civility required of the event and the larger political discourse taking place.[65]

Game 6

Anthony Rendon had five RBIs in Game 6.[66]
October 29, 2019 7:07 pm (CDT) at Minute Maid Park in Houston, Texas 73 °F (23 °C), roof closed
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Washington 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 7 9 0
Houston 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 0
WP: Stephen Strasburg (2–0)   LP: Justin Verlander (0–2)
Home runs:
WSH: Adam Eaton (2), Juan Soto (3), Anthony Rendon (1)
HOU: Alex Bregman (3)
Attendance: 43,384
Boxscore

The ceremonial first pitch was thrown by Hakeem Olajuwon to Clyde Drexler, both of whom played college basketball for the Houston Cougars and later won the 1995 NBA Finals with the Houston Rockets.[67] Starting pitchers were Justin Verlander for Houston and Stephen Strasburg for Washington, the same as in Game 2.[68]

Anthony Rendon drove in a run in the top of the first, giving the Nationals an early 1–0 lead. A sacrifice fly by José Altuve and a solo home run by Alex Bregman in the bottom of the first gave Houston a 2–1 lead.[69] Bregman carried his bat to first base after homering, which some media considered disrespectful.[70] Fifth-inning solo home runs by Adam Eaton and Juan Soto gave the Nationals a 3–2 lead. Soto also carried his bat to first base after homering, mimicking Bregman.[70] Post-game, both managers would voice displeasure with the bat-carrying, and Bregman apologized and said he was at fault.[71][72]

Verlander exited after five innings, having allowed three runs on five hits while striking out three batters.[73] In the top of the seventh inning, Trea Turner was controversially called out for interference on a play at first base,[74] which Washington manager Dave Martinez furiously took issue with, leading to his ejection.[75] A two-out, two-run home run by Rendon off Will Harris—who had not allowed a single earned run in the postseason—later that inning increased Washington's lead to 5–2.[69] Rendon drove in two more runs in the top of the ninth with a double off Chris Devenski, extending the Nationals' lead to 7–2. Strasburg left with one out in the bottom of the ninth, having held the Astros to two runs on five hits while striking out seven.[76] Sean Doolittle relieved Strasburg, and allowed a two-out double to Carlos Correa, but nothing further, and the Nationals evened the series to force a deciding seventh game.[77] This was the first instance in MLB, NBA, or NHL history where the road team won the first six games of a best-of-seven series.[6]

Interference call and Martinez ejection

Trea Turner (left) and umpire Sam Holbrook

In the top of the seventh inning, the Nationals had a 3–2 lead with a runner, Yan Gomes, on first base with no outs when batter Trea Turner hit a swinging bunt to the third base side of the pitcher's mound.[78] Astros pitcher Brad Peacock fielded the ball and threw it to first base; the ball was not caught by first baseman Yuli Gurriel and rolled into foul territory beyond the base, apparently giving the Nationals runners on second and third with no outs.[78] However, Turner was called out by home plate umpire Sam Holbrook for interference, negating the play and requiring Gomes to return to first base.[78] While initial reports and television commentary indicated the call was for running outside the 45-foot (14 m) runner's lane,[79] MLB's chief baseball officer, Joe Torre, clarified after the game that Turner had interfered with Gurriel's attempt to catch the ball,[80][81] stating that Turner "did run to the fair side of the 45-foot line, but really the violation was when he kept Gurriel from being able to catch the ball at first base."[78][82] The call led to a delay of nearly ​4 12 minutes while umpires confirmed their interpretation of the rules (the decision itself was a judgment call not reviewable via MLB instant replay).[78] The call was argued by Nationals manager Dave Martinez when it was first made and again, more intensely, during the seventh-inning stretch, resulting in his ejection by Holbrook.[83] It was the first ejection in a World Series since Atlanta Braves manager Bobby Cox in 1996.[84]

Game 7

Patrick Corbin (shown here with the Diamondbacks) was the winning pitcher in Game 7.
October 30, 2019 7:07 pm (CDT) at Minute Maid Park in Houston, Texas 73 °F (23 °C), roof closed
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Washington 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 6 9 0
Houston 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 9 1
WP: Patrick Corbin (1–1)   LP: Will Harris (0–1)
Home runs:
WSH: Anthony Rendon (2), Howie Kendrick (1)
HOU: Yuli Gurriel (1)
Attendance: 43,326
Boxscore

This was the 40th time a World Series reached its deciding Game 7.[85][note 4] The starting pitchers were Washington's Max Scherzer, who won Game 1, and Houston's Zack Greinke, who received a no decision in Game 3,[86] making this the first World Series Game 7 started by two previous Cy Young Award winners.[87] Entering the deciding seventh game, road teams had a 16–3 record in games of the 2019 championship series for the three major North American professional sports leagues using the best-of-seven format.[88][note 5] The Astros wore their alternate orange home jerseys while the Nationals wore their alternate blue road jerseys. Ceremonial first pitches were thrown by former Astros Jeff Bagwell and Craig Biggio.[89]

A solo home run by Yuli Gurriel in the bottom of the second inning gave the Astros an early 1–0 lead. Carlos Correa hit a two-out RBI single in the bottom of the fifth inning to extend the lead to 2–0. Scherzer pitched five innings, allowing two runs on seven hits while striking out three batters. Greinke had given up only one hit (a single) before Anthony Rendon's solo home run in the top of the seventh cut the Astros' lead to 2–1. Greinke walked Soto after Rendon's homer and was then replaced by Will Harris. Harris gave up a two-run home run to Howie Kendrick into the right field foul pole netting, giving the Nationals a 3–2 lead, which they never relinquished. Greinke was charged with two runs on two hits while striking out three in ​6 13 innings..[90] Roberto Osuna pitched the eighth inning for Houston, when Juan Soto drove in Adam Eaton with two outs to give Washington a two-run lead.[91][92] The Nationals extended their lead to 6–2 in the ninth inning, with two runs scoring on a one-out single by Eaton with the bases loaded. With Patrick Corbin having pitched three scoreless innings in relief for Washington, Daniel Hudson came in to pitch the bottom of the ninth and retired the side in order, striking out Michael Brantley swinging for the final out of the season, to give the Nationals franchise their first World Series title in 51 seasons as the Washington Nationals and, previously, the Montreal Expos, and the city's first since the Senators won in 1924.[90]

The Nationals' win marked the sixth straight year that the visiting team won the deciding game of the Series, as well as the fourth straight win on the road in a World Series Game 7.[93] For the first time in major North American sports history, the visiting team won all seven games of a best-of-seven postseason series.[94][95] During postgame ceremonies, Washington's Stephen Strasburg was presented with the World Series Most Valuable Player Award, the first time a former No. 1 overall draft pick earned the award.[96][97]

Composite line score

2019 World Series (4–3): Washington Nationals (NL) beat Houston Astros (AL).

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Washington Nationals 3 1 0 2 5 1 12 4 5 33 58 4
Houston Astros 8 4 1 4 1 2 5 2 3 30 68 3
Home runs:
WSH: Juan Soto (3), Adam Eaton (2), Anthony Rendon (2), Howie Kendrick (1), Kurt Suzuki (1), Michael A. Taylor (1), Ryan Zimmerman (1)
HOU: Alex Bregman (3), Robinson Chirinos (2), George Springer (2), Yordan Álvarez (1), Carlos Correa (1), Yuli Gurriel (1), Martín Maldonado (1)
Total attendance: 305,072   Average attendance: 43,582

Broadcasting

Television

The World Series was televised by Fox for the 20th straight year,[98] with Joe Buck calling the games as play-by-play announcer along with John Smoltz as color commentator and Ken Rosenthal and Tom Verducci as field reporters. Kevin Burkhardt hosted the network's pregame shows, joined by analysts Frank Thomas, Alex Rodriguez and David Ortiz. Fox Deportes aired the series in Spanish, with Rolando Nichols calling the play-by-play, Edgar Gonzalez as color commentator, and Carlos Álvarez as field reporter.[99]

MLB International fed the series to broadcasters outside the United States, with Matt Vasgersian providing play-by-play and Buck Martinez as color commentator.[100]

Ratings

Game Ratings
(households)
Share
(households)
U.S. audience
(in millions)
Ref
1 7.3 15 12.194 [101]
2 7.1 15 11.925 [102]
3 7.1 15 12.220 [103]
4 5.9 13 10.219 [104]
5 6.5 12 11.390 [105]
6 9.6 19 16.425 [106]
7 13.1 25 23.013 [107]

Notes:[note 6] Games 1 through 4 all ranked as the number one most-watched programs of their respective days.[108] Game 1 had the second-lowest audience for any Game 1 to date, with only the 2014 World Series having a smaller audience for the opener.[109] Game 2 had the lowest audience for any Game 2 to date, a distinction previously held by the 2012 World Series.[110] Game 4 was the lowest rated World Series game ever, and had the second-smallest audience ever, with only Game 3 of the 2008 World Series having a smaller audience.[111] Game 7 was the least-watched Game 7 ever, falling below the seventh game of 2014.[112] Overall, this World Series had the fourth-lowest average number of viewers, with only 2014, 2012, and 2008 being lower.[113] Ratings spiked considerably for Game 7, and there were strong ratings in Houston (42.7/63) and Washington, D.C. (31.8/53), making it the most-viewed MLB game in Washington since 1998.[114]

Radio

ESPN Radio broadcast the World Series for the 22nd straight year,[115] with coverage presented by AutoZone. Dan Shulman served as play-by-play announcer, with Chris Singleton as color commentator and Buster Olney as field reporter. Marc Kestecher and Kevin Winter hosted the pregame shows with reporter Tim Kurkjian.[116] New Spanish-language radio network Unanimo Deportes, flagshipped at WMYM Miami, broadcast its first World Series with Beto Ferreiro and Orlando Hernández announcing.[117]

Locally, both teams' flagship radio stations broadcast the series with their regular announcers. In Houston, KBME aired the series with Robert Ford and Steve Sparks announcing. In Washington, WJFK-FM aired the series with Charlie Slowes and Dave Jageler calling the games. Per MLB rules, the teams' other radio affiliates may carry the series but must air the ESPN Radio broadcast.[100]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b During the postseason, there are seven umpires to a crew. One umpire is designated as the replay official and is assigned to MLB's New York office with replay officials for the first two games of the series. At the first travel day, the replay official umpire is assigned to the field for the remainder of the series while another umpire is designated the replay official. Wolf was the replay official for Games 1 and 2, while Porter was the replay official for the remaining games.
  2. ^ The Astros entered the NL as the Houston Colt .45s in 1962, acquiring their current name in 1965 and moving to the AL in 2013; the Nationals entered the NL as the Montreal Expos in 1969, moving to Washington and acquiring their current name in 2005.
  3. ^ The franchise, then playing as the Montreal Expos, had one postseason series victory in the strike-shortened 1981 baseball season. That year, the postseason included an extra round, with the first half winner of each of two divisions in each league playing the second half division winner. Montreal won the second half Eastern Division title in the National League and beat the Philadelphia Phillies three games to two to advance to the National League Championship series where they bowed to the Los Angeles Dodgers three games to two.
  4. ^ Including the 1912 World Series, which had a deciding Game 8 because Game 2 ended in a tie.
  5. ^ 2019 Stanley Cup Finals road teams 5–2, 2019 NBA Finals road teams 5–1, 2019 World Series road teams 6–0.
  6. ^ Per World Series television ratings, 1984–2019.

References

  1. ^ "Umpires For The 2019 World Series Announced". MLB.com (Press release). MLB Advanced Media. October 21, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
  2. ^ "MLB Postseason". MLB.com. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
  3. ^ Castrovince, Anthony (October 30, 2019). "Nats make road-win history, capture 1st WS title". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Megan (October 31, 2019). "Strasburg wins 2019 World Series MVP". Bleacher Report. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  5. ^ DiGangi, Diana (October 30, 2019). "This is the first-ever World Series where neither team won a home game". WJLA-TV. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Hoegler, Alex (October 30, 2019). "Nationals & Astros Set Record With Six Straight Road Wins In World Series". thesportster.com. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  7. ^ Creamer, Chris (August 5, 2019). "2019 World Series, Postseason Logos Officially Revealed by MLB". sportslogos.net. Retrieved September 27, 2019. the Wild Card Game (in both leagues) will be presented by Hanook Tire [recte Hankook Tires]; the NLDS by Utz, the ALDS by Doosan, and the Series by YouTube TV.
  8. ^ Rome, Chandler (August 29, 2018). "Astros unveil 2019 spring training schedule". chron.com. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  9. ^ Kerkhoff, Blair (October 23, 2015). "All-expansion team World Series will be a first". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  10. ^ Dougherty, Jesse (May 24, 2019). "Dave Martinez forced into what he's least comfortable doing: Selling himself". Washington Post. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  11. ^ "Nats top Indians 8–2, head to playoffs on 8-game win streak". WTOP. September 29, 2019. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  12. ^ Matz, Eddie (September 24, 2019). "Nats, once 19–31, cap turnaround with wild card". ESPN. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  13. ^ Dougherty, Jesse (September 30, 2019). "Nationals' Dave Martinez on recent heart procedure: 'I was so, so scared'". Washington Post. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  14. ^ Collier, Jamal (October 3, 2019). "Nationals win 2019 NL Wild Card Game". MLB.com. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  15. ^ Gurnick, Ken (October 10, 2019). "Dodgers eliminated by Nationals in NLDS". MLB.com. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  16. ^ Waldstein, David (October 15, 2019). "Finally, the Nationals Are in the World Series". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  17. ^ Martin, Jill (November 1, 2017). "Houston Astros win World Series for first time in franchise history". CNN. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  18. ^ "Boston Red Sox beat defending champions Astros to make World Series". The Guardian. October 19, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  19. ^ "Houston Astros finish historic regular season with 107 wins, No. 1 seed". ABC13 Houston. September 30, 2019.
  20. ^ David Waldstein. "Astros Oust the Rays and Earn Another A.L.C.S. With the Yankees – The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  21. ^ McTaggart, Brian (October 20, 2019). "Altuve's walk-off winner sends Astros to Series". MLB.com. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  22. ^ Snyder, Matt (September 22, 2019). "Astros clinch AL West for third straight season, enter October looking for another World Series run". CBS Sports. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  23. ^ "Game 1 boxscore". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  24. ^ "Game 2 boxscore". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  25. ^ "Game 3 boxscore". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  26. ^ "Game 4 boxscore". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  27. ^ "Game 5 boxscore". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  28. ^ "Game 6 boxscore". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  29. ^ "Game 7 boxscore". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  30. ^ a b Kepner, Tyler (October 23, 2019). "The Nationals' Bullpen, a Weakness, Is Turning Into a Strength". The New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  31. ^ @PostSports (October 22, 2019). "The Nationals are 7–0 in their navy blue alternates this postseason, which they wore in Game 1 of the World Series" (Tweet). Retrieved October 23, 2019 – via Twitter.
  32. ^ a b "Ceremonial & off-field activities for Game 1 of the 2019 World Series presented by YouTube TV". MLB.com (Press release). October 22, 2019. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  33. ^ Schoenfield, David (October 22, 2019). "Youngest to hit a World Series home run". ESPN. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  34. ^ "Astros lose World Series opener to Nats after a sordid week off the field". Guardian. October 23, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  35. ^ @MLB (October 22, 2019). "14th career postseason #SpringerDinger" (Tweet). Retrieved October 23, 2019 – via Twitter.
  36. ^ Yorntov, Jesse (October 22, 2019). "George Springer set a record with his latest World Series home run". USA Today.
  37. ^ a b King III, George A. (October 24, 2019). "Nationals dominate Astros to take World Series stranglehold". New York Post. Retrieved October 24, 2019.
  38. ^ Abdeldaiem, Alaa (October 23, 2019). "Olympic Gymnast Simone Biles Throws First Pitch at Game 2 of World Series". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  39. ^ Footer, Alyson (October 23, 2019). "No. 200 makes Verlander postseason K king". MLB.com. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  40. ^ "Brantley's big hits help Astros win Game 3 of World Series". Usatoday.com. October 26, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  41. ^ Doolittle, Bradford (October 20, 2019). "Five reasons this Astros-Nationals World Series will be special". ESPN. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  42. ^ Zielonka, Adam (October 25, 2019). "Cordero, Aldrin mark Nationals' first World Series home game with ceremonial pitches". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  43. ^ "Nationals waste opportunities, lose to Astros in Game 3 of World Series, 4–1". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  44. ^ Kelly, Matt (October 26, 2019). "3 road wins to open WS? First time in 23 years". MLB.com. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  45. ^ Baer, Bill (October 27, 2019). "Alex Bregman's historic night paves the way for Astros' 8–1 win in World Series Game 4 – HardballTalk". Mlb.nbcsports.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  46. ^ a b "2019 World Series Games 3, 4, and 5 Ceremonial First Pitch Participants". MLB.com (Press release). October 25, 2019. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  47. ^ @team980 (October 26, 2019). "Ceremonial First Pitch thrown by Janyia Freeman, Nationals Youth Baseball Academy Scholar-Athlete before Game 4 of the #WorldSeries" (Tweet). Retrieved October 26, 2019 – via Twitter.
  48. ^ Baccellieri, Emma. "World Series: Astros bet big on bullpen to beat Nationals in Game 4 – Sports Illustrated". Si.com. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  49. ^ @MarkZuckerman (October 26, 2019). "Forgot to mention this earlier: The Nationals are still wearing their navy blue jerseys tonight. They're now 9–1 in them this postseason" (Tweet). Retrieved October 26, 2019 – via Twitter.
  50. ^ World Series tied as Houston takes Game 4 in blowout fashion | WORLD SERIES 2019 | CBS Sports HQ, retrieved October 31, 2019
  51. ^ a b c "Astros explode for eight runs in Game 4 win over Nationals". KHOU. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  52. ^ Toribio, Juan (October 27, 2019). "Bregman rocks a slam as Astros rekindle offense". MLB.com. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  53. ^ Perry, Dayn (October 27, 2019). "Astros vs. Nationals: Alex Bregman's grand slam buries Washington in World Series Game 4". CBS Sports. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  54. ^ Kelly, Matt (October 27, 2019). "4 road wins to open WS? First time in a while". MLB.com. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  55. ^ @SamanthaJPower (October 27, 2019). "@chefjoseandres throws out the first pitch to Washington treasure Ryan Zimmerman" (Tweet). Retrieved October 27, 2019 – via Twitter.
  56. ^ "Scherzer (neck spasms) scratched; Ross to start". MLB.com. October 27, 2019. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  57. ^ @MarkZuckerman (October 27, 2019). "The Nationals are sticking with the navy blue jerseys again tonight" (Tweet). Retrieved October 27, 2019 – via Twitter.
  58. ^ Gerrit Cole leads Astros in 7-1 World Series Game 5 win | Astros-Nationals MLB Highlights, retrieved October 31, 2019
  59. ^ "Bon Voyage: Road teams win 1st 5 Series games for 3rd time". USA Today. AP. October 28, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  60. ^ Bell, Demetrius (October 28, 2019). "Everyone's talking about the World Series strike zone". SB Nation. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  61. ^ "How one blown strike call in Game 5 illustrates MLB's need for robot umps". ESPN.com. October 28, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  62. ^ "Calls Grow Louder For Robot Umpires In MLB". 670 The Score. AP. October 29, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  63. ^ a b Elliott, Josh K. (October 29, 2019). "Women who flashed breasts at World Series banned for topless 'promotion'". Global News TV. globalnews.ca. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  64. ^ "Trump booed at World Series and chants of "Lock him up!" break out". CBS News. October 28, 2019. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  65. ^ Galen, Reed (October 29, 2019). "Reed Galen- Trump got booed at the World Series. But guess what — 'civility' won't fix America". NBC News. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  66. ^ "Nationals win Game 6 with dominant Stephen Strasburg performance". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  67. ^ "Olajuwon's 1st pitch to Drexler". MLB.com. October 29, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  68. ^ "0–5 in World Series, Verlander eyes Astros clinch in Game 6". USA Today. AP. October 29, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  69. ^ a b "Nationals win Game 6 with dominant Stephen Strasburg performance". The Washington Post. October 30, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  70. ^ a b McCarriston, Shanna (October 30, 2019). "World Series: If you pull a stunt like Bregman's bat carry to first, commit to it and don't apologize". CBS Sports. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  71. ^ Khurshudyan, Isabelle (October 29, 2019). "Juan Soto copies Alex Bregman's bat carry after Game 6 home run". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  72. ^ DiComo, Anthony (October 30, 2019). "Soto copies Bregman bat carry: 'I wanted to do it'". MLB.com. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  73. ^ @NickVanDelRSN (October 29, 2019). "Game 6: Verlander's night is over after 5 innings and 93 pitches, his final starting pitching statline of the season: 5H, 3ER, 3BB, 3 strikeouts" (Tweet). Retrieved November 2, 2019 – via Twitter.
  74. ^ "Trea Turner called out on controversial base-runner interference call in World Series". KHOU. October 29, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  75. ^ @MLBONFOX (October 29, 2019). "During the 7th inning stretch, Nationals Manager Dave Martinez was visibly upset with the umpires and was ejected during the exchange" (Tweet). Retrieved October 29, 2019 – via Twitter.
  76. ^ @AmirNajimi (October 29, 2019). "Strasburg has been taken out of the game. Doolittle is coming out. 8.1 IP, 5H, 2ER, 2BB, 7K" (Tweet). Retrieved November 2, 2019 – via Twitter.
  77. ^ "Strasburg, Nats top Astros 7–2, force World Series Game 7". ESPN. AP. October 30, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  78. ^ a b c d e Davidoff, Ken (October 29, 2019). "Trea Turner interference call causes Nationals-Astros chaos". New York Post. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  79. ^ Hoffman, Benjamin (October 30, 2019). "Martinez Ejected as Nationals Lead Astros: Live Updates". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  80. ^ Anderson, R.J. (October 30, 2019). "World Series: What MLB rulebook says about bizarre interference call against Nationals' Trea Turner". CBS Sports. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  81. ^ Imber, Gil (October 30, 2019). "World Series Interference – Blame the Rule, not the Umpire". Close Call Sports & Umpire Ejection Fantasy League. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  82. ^ "Torre on interference, rules". MLB.com. October 30, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  83. ^ Schoenfield, David (October 29, 2019). "Nats' Dave Martinez ejected after arguing controversial call in 7th". ESPN. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  84. ^ "World Series Ejections". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  85. ^ "A look at World Series Game 7s". MLB.com. October 29, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  86. ^ "Nationals' Max Scherzer: Primed for Game 7". RotoWire. October 30, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019 – via CBS Sports.
  87. ^ DiComo, Anthony (October 30, 2019). "We've never seen this: 2 Cy Youngs in Game 7". MLB.com. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  88. ^ @SERCenter (October 30, 2019). "In the #WorldSeries NBA finals and Stanley Cup finals the road team is 16–3 in 2019. Washington is 6 outs away from making it 17–3" (Tweet). Retrieved October 30, 2019 – via Twitter.
  89. ^ "Biggio and Bagwell throw out Game 7 ceremonial first pitches". KHOU. October 30, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  90. ^ a b Schoenfield, David (October 31, 2019). "The seventh inning that shocked Houston and made the Nationals World Series champions". ESPN. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  91. ^ Verducci, Tom (November 4, 2019). "Inside the Moments That Flipped the World Series". SI.com. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
  92. ^ "Nationals rally past Astros in Game 7 to win franchise's first World Series". ESPN.com. Associated Press. October 31, 2019. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
  93. ^ Langs, Sarah; Kelly, Matt; Simon, Andrew (October 31, 2019). "13 stats that explain the Nats' clutch comebacks". MLB.com. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  94. ^ Kelly, Matt (October 30, 2019). "Home field's never been this big a disadvantage". MLB.com. MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  95. ^ "Washington completes the road, wins first-ever World Series". The Boston Globe. AP. October 31, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  96. ^ Castrovince, Anthony (October 30, 2019). "Undefeated in October, Stras named WS MVP". MLB.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  97. ^ Anderson, R.J. (October 31, 2019). "Nationals' Stephen Strasburg named World Series MVP capping dominant postseason". CBS Sports. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  98. ^ Hernandez, Kristian (October 4, 2019). "MLB Postseason 2019: Fox Sports Spotlights Inaugural 4K HDR Broadcasts, Return of FlyCam and DirtCam". sportsvideo.org. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  99. ^ "FOX Sports Steps Up to the Plate with Exclusive Coverage of 2019 World Series Presented by YouTube TV". Fox Sports (Press release). October 22, 2019. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  100. ^ a b Lucia, Joe (October 22, 2019). "Your 2019 World Series announcing schedule and broadcast primer". Awful Announcing. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  101. ^ Pucci, Douglas (October 23, 2019). "Tuesday Final Ratings: Fox Wins Prime Time by Large Margin Despite Nationals-Astros Game One Earning Five-Year Low for a World Series Telecast". programminginsider.com. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  102. ^ Pucci, Douglas (October 25, 2019). "Wednesday Final Ratings: Tyler Perry's 'The Oval' and 'Sistas' on BET Off to Decent Starts". programminginsider.com. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  103. ^ Pucci, Douglas (October 29, 2019). "Friday Final Ratings: Astros-Nationals Delivers Least-Watched World Series Game Three in Five Years". programminginsider.com. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  104. ^ Pucci, Douglas (October 29, 2019). "Saturday Final Ratings: Astros-Nationals Game 4 Posts Lowest-Rated World Series Telecast Among Households To-Date". programminginsider.com. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  105. ^ Pucci, Douglas (October 30, 2019). "Sunday Final Ratings: Packers-Chiefs on NBC's 'Sunday Night Football' More Than Doubles the Adults 18–49 of Astros-Nationals World Series Game Five on Fox". programminginsider.com. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  106. ^ Pucci, Douglas (October 30, 2019). "Tuesday Final Ratings: World Series on Fox Picks Up Considerable Steam with Nationals-Astros Game Six". programminginsider.com. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  107. ^ Pucci, Douglas (October 31, 2019). "Wednesday Final Ratings: Nearly 24 Million Viewers for World Series Game Seven Across All Fox Platforms". programminginsider.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  108. ^ "World Series Game 4 on FOX Tops Competitive Saturday Programming Lineup". Fox Sports. October 27, 2019.
  109. ^ Maglio, Tony (October 23, 2019). "World Series Game 1 Misses All-Time Low TV Audience by Just 3,000 Viewers". thewrap.com. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  110. ^ Baysinger, Tim (October 24, 2019). "World Series Game 2 Falls to All-Time Low TV Audience". thewrap.com. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  111. ^ Paulsen (October 27, 2019). "World Series posts lowest rating ever in Game 4". SportsMediaWatch.com. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  112. ^ Paulsen (October 31, 2019). "World Series Game 7 ratings big despite low". sportsmediawatch.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  113. ^ Paulsen (October 31, 2019). "Game 7 helps World Series avoid all-time lows". sportsmediawatch.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  114. ^ World Series Game 7 ratings big despite low
  115. ^ "ESPN Offers Cross-Platform Coverage of 2019 MLB Postseason". radio-online.com. October 3, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  116. ^ Hughes, Katie (October 17, 2019). "ESPN Radio to Broadcast the World Series: Washington Nationals vs. Houston Astros/New York Yankees Winner". ESPN Press Room. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  117. ^ "MLB Postseason Broadcast On New Spanish-Language Network". Radio Ink. October 3, 2019.

Further reading

  • Langs, Sarah (October 16, 2019). "How baseball's changed since DC's last Series". MLB.com. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  • Leitch, Will (October 30, 2019). "What Game 7 win would mean for each team". MLB.com. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  • Schoenfield, David (October 21, 2019). "World Series viewers guide: Can Nationals stop Astros?". ESPN. Retrieved October 23, 2019.

External links

  • Major League Baseball postseason schedule
  • 2019 World Series at Baseball Reference
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2019_World_Series&oldid=926537631"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019_World_Series
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "2019 World Series"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA