2015 Pakistan heat wave

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2015 Pakistan heat wave
2015 Pakistan heat wave is located in Pakistan
Karachi 45 °C (113 °F)
Karachi 45 °C (113 °F)
Turbat 49 °C (120 °F)
Turbat 49 °C (120 °F)
Larkana 49 °C (120 °F)
Larkana 49 °C (120 °F)
Rahim Yar Khan 43 °C (109 °F)
Rahim Yar Khan 43 °C (109 °F)
Multan 40 °C (104 °F)
Multan 40 °C (104 °F)
A map marking significantly affected cities
Date June 2015
Location Pakistan
Casualties
about 2,000 deaths from heat stroke and dehydration

A severe heat wave with temperatures as high as 49 °C (120 °F) struck southern Pakistan in June 2015. It caused the deaths of about 2,000 people from dehydration and heat stroke, mostly in Sindh province and its capital city, Karachi.[1][2][3] The heat wave also claimed the lives of zoo animals[4] and countless agricultural livestock.[5] The event followed a separate heat wave in neighboring India that killed 2,500 people in May 2015.[6]

Recorded temperatures

Extreme temperatures started to grip Pakistan's southern areas on 18 June 2015, and peaked on 20 June:[7][8]

Date Place Temperature
20 June 2015 Karachi 45 °C (113 °F)
20 June 2015 Larkana 49 °C (120 °F)
20 June 2015 Turbat 49 °C (120 °F)
20 June 2015 Sibi 49 °C (120 °F)
20 June 2015 Rahim Yar Khan 43 °C (109 °F)
20 June 2015 Dadu 44 °C (111 °F)
20 June 2015 Multan 40 °C (104 °F)
20 June 2015 Nawabshah 41 °C (106 °F)
20 June 2015 Hyderabad 42 °C (108 °F)

Karachi recorded its highest temperatures since 1979.[9] By 24 June 2015, the temperature and death toll began to abate; the maximum temperature in Karachi was 37 °C (98 °F), and officials reported 58 deaths compared to 300 the previous day.[4]

Contributory factors

Asif Shuja, the former director general of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, claimed the heat wave was a symptom of global climate change, aggravated by deforestation, expansion of asphalt superhighways, and rapid urbanisation. He maintained that "there has been a rise in the Earth's average temperature from 15.5 °C (59.9 °F) to 16.2 °C (61.2 °F) over the last 100 years, due to which we are experiencing such extreme weather conditions both in summers and winters." Shuja went on to say that the lack of sophisticated weather prediction technology in Pakistan contributed to the casualties of the heat wave.[7]

Moreover, widespread failures of the electrical grid left many locations without working air-conditioners, fans, or water pumps, adding further to the death toll.[4] Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif tasked a committee comprising Abdul Qadir Baloch, a retired General of the Pakistan Army and Minister for States and Frontier Regions, together with State Minister for Health Sciences Regulation and Coordination Saira Afzal Tarar. The two Ministers visited Karachi's Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre in the wake of deaths due to the severe heat wave. Speaking to the media during their visit, Baloch said that the K-Electric was being investigated for load shedding.[10] Baloch held the K-Electric, KW&SB and Sindh government responsible for the increase in heat wave mortality in Karachi.[11] The power regulator NEPRA reported that K-Electric was not generating electricity according to its generation capacity.[12]

The heat wave coincided with the month of Ramadan, when Muslims observe fasting and no drinking from dawn till dark. This increased the risks of dehydration and heat stroke.[13]

Emergency measures

Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif declared a state of emergency, activated military relief efforts,[9] and warned electric supply companies that he would not tolerate power outages during Ramadan. The Sindh government declared an emergency for all government hospitals in the province, and the University of Karachi postponed its exams for at least one month.[14] An influential Muslim cleric in Pakistan decreed a fatwa that if "a religious and qualified doctor" advises (for safety of life), Muslims are allowed to skip or break their Ramadan daytime fast, and then to complete those days of fasting when Ramadan and the emergency have passed.[13] At the peak of the June 2015 heat wave, the number of corpses exceeded local capacities for storage or burial, as the emergency efforts proved insufficient to prevent enormous loss of life.[5][15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Haider, Kamran; Anis, Khurrum (24 June 2015). "Heat Wave Death Toll Rises to 2,000 in Pakistan's Financial Hub". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  2. ^ Mansoor, Hasan (30 June 2015). "Heatstroke leaves another 26 dead in Sindh". Dawn. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "Heatwave death toll in Karachi reaches 1260". ARY News. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c Imtiaz, Saba; ur-Rehman, Zia (25 June 2015). "Temperature and Daily Death Toll Fall as Heat Wave Appears to Abate in Pakistan". New York Times. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Majeed, Aamir (22 June 2015). "Mortuaries fill up as heat continues to take scalps". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  6. ^ "India heatwave: death toll passes 2,500 as victim families fight for compensation". Reuters. 2 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "Heat wave: Under scorching sun, Pakistan swelters". The Express Tribune. 21 June 2015. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  8. ^ "Temperature soars to 46, load shedding adds to woes". Geo TV. 20 June 2015. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Pakistan heatwave: Death toll crosses 800 people in Sindh". BBC News. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  10. ^ "Qadir Baloch, Saira Afzal visit Karachi to meet heat stroke victims". The News International. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  11. ^ "PML-N ministers lash out at Sindh govt, K-Electric during Karachi visit". Pakistan Today. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  12. ^ "K-Electric responsible for load shedding in Karachi". Samaa TV. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  13. ^ a b Variyar, Mugdha (25 June 2015). "Pakistan Heatwave: Ramadan Fatwa Allows Muslims to Break Fast During the Day as Death Toll Rises". International Business Times. Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  14. ^ "Heatwave kills more than 120 in Pakistan". AFP. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  15. ^ "After more than 1,100 deaths, people raise their hands in prayer for rain". Daily Times Pakistan. 27 June 2015. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
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