2011 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • In science
    2008
    2009
    2010
    2011
    2012
    2013
    2014

    Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2011.

    Protozoa

    New taxa

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Vetufebrus[2]

    Gen et sp nov

    Valid

    Poinar

    Burdigalian

    Dominican amber

     Dominican Republic

    A Plasmodiidae vectored by the bat fly Enischnomyia stegosoma


    Plants

    Angiosperms

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Palmoxylon lametaei[3]

    Species

    Valid

    Dutta, Ambwani, & Estrada-Ruiz

    Maastrichtian

    Lameta Formation

     India

    A petrified palm wood

    Leefructus[4]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Sun, Dilcher, Wang, & Chen

    Early Cretaceous

    Yixian Formation

     China

    A basal eudicot

    Gymnosperms

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Qataniaria[5]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Krassilov & Schrank

    Albian

    Hatira Formation

     Israel

    Cariria[6]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Kunzmann, Mohr, Wilde & Bernardes-de-Oliveira

    Aptian

    Crato Formation

     Brazil

    Pteridophytes

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Equisetum thermale[7]

    sp. nov

    Valid

    Channing, Zamuner, Edwards, & Guido

    Callovian - Tithonian

    La Matilde Formation

     Argentina

    oldest crown group Equisetum species

    Nematoda

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Formicodiplogaster[8]

    Gen et sp nov

    valid

    Poinar

    Burdigalian

    Dominican amber

     Dominican Republic

    Diplogasteridae nematode, parasite of ant genus Azteca;
    Type species Formicodiplogaster myrmenema

    Lobopods

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Diania cactiformis[9]

    Valid

    Liu et al.

    Lower Cambrian

    Maotianshan shale

     China

    A lobopodian.

    Mureropodia apae

    Valid

    Gamez Vintaned, Linan, & Zhuravlev

    Early Cambrian

    Murero

     Spain

    A lobopodian.

    Siberion lenaicus

    Valid

    Dzik

    Early Cambrian

    Sinsk Formation

     Russia

    A lobopodian.

    Vetulicolians

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Ooedigera peeli[10]

    gen. nov

    valid

    Zinther, et al.

    Early Cambrian

    Sirius Passet

     Greenland

    earliest known vetulicolian described

    Artist's reconstruction

    Molluscs

    Arthropods

    Fishes

    Amphibians

    Newly named lepospondyls

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Kirktonecta[11]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Clack

    Viséan

    East Kirkton Quarry

    A microsaur.

    Tambaroter[12]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Early Permian

    Tambach Formation

    An ostodolepid.

    Newly named temnospondyls

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Acheloma dunni[13]

    Species

    Valid

    • Polley
    • Reisz

    Early Permian

    A trematopid.

    Calmasuchus[14]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Fortuny
    • Galobart
    • De Santisteban

    early-middle Anisian

    Catalan basin

    A capitosaurian.

    Rotaryus[15]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Early Permian

    Tambach Formation

    A trematopid.

    Rubeostratilia[16]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Bourget
    • Anderson

    Early Permian

    An amphibamid.

    Rubeostratilia texensis.

    Newly named lissamphibians

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Urupia[17]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Skutschas
    • Krasnolutskii

    Bathonian

    Itat Formation

    A basal stem salamander.

    Basal reptiles

    Newly named captorhinids

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Gansurhinus[18]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Middle Permian

    A moradisaurine captorinid.

    Newly named basal diapsids

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Orovenator[19]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Sakmarian

    The oldest and most basal neodiapsid.

    Newly named ichthyosaurs

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Sveltonectes[20]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Barremian

    An ophthalmosaurid.

    Lepidosauromorphs

    Newly named saurosphargids

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Sinosaurosphargis[21]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Middle Anisian

    Guanling Formation

    An incertae sedis.

    Newly named sauropterygians

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Abyssosaurus[22]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Berezin

    Late Hauterivian

    An aristonectid.

    Diandongosaurus[23]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Shang
    • Wu
    • Li

    Middle Anisian

    Guanling Formation

    A relative of nothosauroids.[24]

    Dianopachysaurus[25]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Middle Anisian

    Guanling Formation

    A keichousaurid pachypleurosaur.

    Hauffiosaurus tomistomimus[26]

    Species

    Valid

    Early Toarcian

    Whitby Limestone Formation

    A second species of Hauffiosaurus.

    Marmornectes[27]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Ketchum
    • Benson

    Callovian

    Oxford Clay Formation

    A pliosaurid.

    Westphaliasaurus[28]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Schwermann
    • Sander

    Pliensbachian

    Höxter district

    A plesiosaurid plesiosaur.

    Zarafasaura[29]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Maastrichtian

    An elasmosaurid plesiosaur.

    Newly named lizards

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Brasiliguana[30]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Nava
    • Martinelli

    Turonian/Santonian

    Adamantina Formation

    An iguanian lizard.

    Cryptolacerta[31]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Lutetian

    Messel pit

    An amphisbaenian lizard.

    Latoplatecarpus[32]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Konishi
    • Caldwell

    Campanian

    Pierre Shale Formation
    Demopolis Chalk Formation

    A plioplatecarpine mosasaur. Its type species is Latoplatecarpus willistoni; "Plioplatecarpus" nichollsae (Cuthbertson et al.., 2007) is a second species of Latoplatecarpus.

    Oreithyia[33][34]

    Gen. et sp. nov

    Valid

    • Smith

    Eocene (Chadronian)

    A member of Corytophanidae. The type species is Oreithyia oaklandi.

    Plesioplatecarpus[32]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Konishi
    • Caldwell

    Middle Coniacian to middle Santonian.

    Niobrara Chalk
    Eutaw Formation

    A plioplatecarpine mosasaur, a new genus for "Clidastes" planifrons (Cope, 1874).

    Queironius[33]

    Gen. et sp. nov

    Valid

    • Smith

    Eocene (Chadronian)

    A relative of the desert iguana. The type species is Queironius praelapsus.

    Sauropithecoides[33]

    Gen. et comb. nov

    Valid

    • Smith

    Eocene (Chadronian)

    A member of Polychrotidae; a new genus for "Polychrus" charisticus Smith (2006).

    Newly named snakes

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Madtsoia pisdurensis[35]

    Species

    Valid

    • Mohabey
    • Head
    • Wilson

    Late Cretaceous

    A madtsoiid snake.

    Turtles

    Newly named turtles

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Albertwoodemys[36]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Early Oligocene

    Jebel Qatrani Formation

    A podocnemidid.

    Brontochelys[36]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Early Miocene

    A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Shweboemys" gaffneyi.

    Cordichelys[36]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Late Eocene

    Qasr el-Sagha beds

    A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Podocnemis" antiqua.

    Gilmoremys[37]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Joyce
    • Lyson

    Maastrichtian

    Lance Formation
    Hell Creek Formation

    A softshell turtle, new genus for "Aspideretes" lancensis (Gilmore, 1928).

    Graptemys kerneri[38]

    Sp. nov

    Valid

    • Ehret & Bourque

    Late Pleistocene

    An emydid, a species of Graptemys.

    Hispaniachelys[39]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Oxfordian

    Lorente Formation

    A paracryptodire or a basal testudine.

    Hoplochelys clark[40]

    Species

    Valid

    Maastrichtian

    Hell Creek Formation

    A kinosternoid, a species of Hoplochelys.

    Lapparentemys[36]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Paleocene

    Santa Lucía Formation

    A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Roxochelys" vilavilensis.

    Latentemys[36]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Uncertain, possibly Miocene.

    Uncertain, possibly Moghara Formation.

    A podocnemidid.

    Lemurchelys[36]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Early Miocene

    Moghara Formation

    A podocnemidid.

    Mogharemys[36]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Miocene

    A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Sternothaerus" blanckenhorni.

    Oliveremys[41]

    Gen. et comb. nov.

    Valid

    • Vitek

    Eocene

    Washakie Formation

    A trionychid, a new genus for "Trionyx" uintaensis.

    Patagoniaemys[42]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Sterli
    • De la Fuente

    Campanian - Maastrichtian

    La Colonia Formation

    A stem turtle.

    Peiropemys[36]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Late Cretaceous

    Marília Formation

    A podocnemidid.

    Pricemys[36]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Meylan
    • et al.

    Late Cretaceous

    Marília Formation

    A podocnemidid.

    Prochelidella cerrobarcinae[43]

    Species

    Valid

    Aptian/Albian

    Cerro Barcino Formation

    The oldest known chelid, a species of Prochelidella.

    Selenemys[44]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Pérez-García
    • Ortega

    Upper Kimmeridgian

    Lusitanian Basin

    A pleurosternid.

    Sokatra[45]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Gaffney
    • Krause

    Maastrichtian

    Maevarano Formation

    A pleurodiran.

    Trionyx ikoviensis[46]

    Species

    Valid

    Middle Eocene

    A species of Trionyx sensu lato.

    Wilburemys[47]

    Gen. et sp. nov

    Valid

    Late Miocene-Pliocene (Hemphillian-Blancan)

    Ellensburg Formation

    A member of Emydidae belonging to the subfamily Emydinae. The type species is Wilburemys yakimensis.

    Archosauromorphs

    Newly named basal archosauromorphs

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Archeopelta[48]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Desojo
    • Ezcurra
    • Schultz

    Late Ladinian/Early Carnian

    Santa Maria Formation

    A member of Archosauriformes of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Originally classified as a doswelliid, but subsequently argued to be an erpetosuchid archosaur.[49]

    Augustaburiania[50]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Sennikov

    Early Triassic

    Don River Basin

    The earliest tanystropheid.

    Kyrgyzsaurus[51]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Alifanov
    • Kurochkin

    Late Ladinian/Early Carnian

    Madygen Formation

    The earliest drepanosaurid.

    Protanystropheus[50]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Sennikov

    Middle - Late Triassic

    A tanystropheid, a new genus for "Tanystropheus" antiquus (von Huene, 1905).

    Archosaurs

    Synapsids

    Newly named non-mammalian synapsids

    Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

    Annatherapsidus postum[52]

    Sp.

    Valid

    • Ivakhnenko

    Late Permian

    A therocephalian.

    Basilodon[53]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Kammerer
    • Angielczyk
    • Fröbisch

    Late Permian

    A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" woodwardi.

    Bridetherium[54]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Clemens

    Early Jurassic

    A morganucodontan.

    Candelariodon[55]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Middle Triassic

    Santa Maria Formation

    A carnivorous cynodont.

    Cryptovenator[56]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Late Gzhelian

    Remigiusberg Formation

    A sphenacodontid pelycosaur. The type species is Cryptovenator hirschbergeri.

    Euptychognathus[53]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Kammerer
    • Angielczyk
    • Fröbisch

    Late Permian

    A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" bathyrhynchus.

    Euromycter[57]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    Upper Sakmarian - Lower Lopingian

    Grès Rouge Group

    A large caseid. A new genus for "Casea" rutena.

    Gorochovetzia[52]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Ivakhnenko

    Late Permian

    A therocephalian.

    Keyseria[53]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Kammerer
    • Angielczyk
    • Fröbisch

    Late Permian

    A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" benjamini.

    Muchia[52]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Ivakhnenko

    Late Permian

    A therocephalian.

    Paceyodon[54]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Clemens

    Early Jurassic

    A morganucodontan.

    Peramodon[53]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Kammerer
    • Angielczyk
    • Fröbisch

    Late Permian

    A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" amalitzkii

    Perplexisaurus lepusculus[52]

    Species

    Valid

    • Ivakhnenko

    Middle Permian

    A therocephalian.

    Purlovia[52]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    • Ivakhnenko

    Late Permian

    A therocephalian with a short skull.

    Ruthenosaurus[57]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Upper Sakmarian - Lower Lopingian

    Grès Rouge Group

    A large caseid. The type species is Ruthenosaurus russellorum

    Syops[53]

    Gen. et comb.

    Valid

    • Kammerer
    • Angielczyk
    • Fröbisch

    Late Permian

    A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" vanhoepeni.

    Tiarajudens[58]

    Gen. et sp.

    Valid

    Capitanian

    Rio do Rasto Formation

    A basal, saber-toothed herbivorous anomodont. The type species is Tiarajudens eccentricus.

    Mammals

    Footnotes

    Complete author list

    As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

    1. ^ Henrici, Martens, Berman, Sumida.
    2. ^ Berman, Henrici, Martens, Sumida, Anderson
    3. ^ Reisz, Liu, Li, Müller.
    4. ^ Fischer, Masure, Arkhangelsky, Godefroit.
    5. ^ Li, Rieppel, Wu, Zhao, Wang.
    6. ^ Liu, Rieppel, Jiang, Aitchison, Motani, Zhang, Zhou, Sun.
    7. ^ Benson, Ketchum, Noè, Gómez-Pérez.
    8. ^ Vincent, Bardet, Suberbiola, Bouya, Amaghzaz, Meslouh.
    9. ^ Müller, Hipsley, Head, Kardjilov, Hilger, Wuttke, Reisz.
    10. ^ Gaffney, Meylan, Wood, Simons and Campos
    11. ^ Slater, Reolid, Wood, Schouten and Benton
    12. ^ Knauss, Joyce, Lyson and Pearson
    13. ^ de la Fuente, Umazano, Sterli and Carballido
    14. ^ Danilov, Zvonok, Syromyatnikova and Udovichenko
    15. ^ De Oliveira, Schultz, Soares, Rodrigues.
    16. ^ Fröbisch, Schoch, Müller, Schindler, Schweiss.
    17. ^ a b Reisz, Maddin, Fröbisch, Falconnet.
    18. ^ Cisneros, Abdala, Rubidge, Dentzien-Dias, Bueno.

    References

    1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
    2. ^ Poinar, G. (2011). "Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber". Parasites & Vectors. 4 (229): 1–5. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-229. 
    3. ^ Dutta, D.; Ambwani, K.; Estrada-Ruiz, E. (2011). "Late Cretaceous palm stem Palmoxylon lametaei sp. nov. from Bhisi Village, Maharashtra, India" (PDF). Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas. 28 (1): 1–9. 
    4. ^ Ge Sun; David L. Dilcher; Hongshan Wang; Zhiduan Chen (2011). "A eudicot from the Early Cretaceous of China". Nature. 471 (7340): 625–628. Bibcode:2011Natur.471..625S. doi:10.1038/nature09811. PMID 21455178. 
    5. ^ Valentin Krassilov; Eckart Schrank (2011). "New Albian macro- and palynoflora from the Negev (Israel) with description of a new gymnosperm morphotaxon" (PDF). Cretaceous Research. 32 (1): 13–29. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.10.001. 
    6. ^ Kunzmann, L.; Mohr, B.A.R.; Wilde, V.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C. (2011). "A putative gnetalean gymnosperm Cariria orbiculiconiformis gen. nov. et spec. nov. from the Early Cretaceous of northern Gondwana" (PDF). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 165 (1–2): 75–95. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2011.02.005. 
    7. ^ Channing, A.; Zamuner, A.; Edwards, D.; Guido, D. (2011). "Equisetum thermale sp. nov. (Equisetales) from the Jurassic San Agustin hot spring deposit, Patagonia: Anatomy, paleoecology, and inferred paleoecophysiology". American Journal of Botany. 98 (4): 680–697. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000211. PMID 21613167. 
    8. ^ Poinar, G.; Heiss, E. (2011). "New Termitaphididae and Aradidae (Hemiptera) in Mexican and Dominican amber" (PDF). Palaeodiversity. 4: 51–62. 
    9. ^ Liu, J.; Steiner, M.; Dunlop, J. A.; Keupp, H.; Shu, D.; Ou, Q.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. (2011). "An armoured Cambrian lobopodian from China with arthropod-like appendages". Nature. 470 (7335): 526–530. Bibcode:2011Natur.470..526L. doi:10.1038/nature09704. PMID 21350485. 
    10. ^ Vinther, J.; Smith, M. P.; Harper, D. A. T. (2011). "Vetulicolians from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, North Greenland, and the polarity of morphological characters in basal deuterostomes". Palaeontology. 54 (3): 711–719. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01034.x. 
    11. ^ Clack, Jennifer A. (2011). "A new microsaur from the early Carboniferous (Viséan) of East Kirkton, Scotland, showing soft tissue evidence". Special Papers in Palaeontology. 86: 1–11. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01073.x. 
    12. ^ Henrici, A.C.; Martens, T.; Berman, D.S.; Sumida, S.S. (2011). "An ostodolepid 'microsaur' (Lepospondyli) from the Lower Permian Tambach Formation of central Germany". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (5): 997–1004. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.596601. 
    13. ^ Polley, Brendan P.; Reisz, Robert R. (2011). "A new Lower Permian trematopid (Temnospondyli: Dissorophoidea) from Richards Spur, Oklahoma". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (4): 789–815. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00668.x. 
    14. ^ Fortuny, Josep; Galobart, Àngel; De Santisteban, Carles (2011). "A new capitosaur from the Middle Triassic of Spain and the relationships within the Capitosauria" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 56 (3): 553–66. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0025. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-22. 
    15. ^ David S. Berman, Amy C. Henrici, Thomas Martens, Stuart S. Sumida and Jason S. Anderson (2011). "Rotaryus gothae, a New Trematopid (Temnospondyli: Dissorophoidea) from the Lower Permian of Central Germany". Annals of Carnegie Museum. 80 (1): 49–65. doi:10.2992/007.080.0106. 
    16. ^ Bourget, Hélène; Anderson, Jason S. (2011). "A new amphibamid (Temnospondyli: Dissorophoidea) from the Early Permian of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (1): 32–49. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.539652. 
    17. ^ P.P. Skutschas; S.A. Krasnolutskii (2011). "A new genus and species of basal salamanders from the Middle Jurassic of western Siberia, Russia" (PDF). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 315 (2): 167–175. 
    18. ^ Robert R. Reisz; Jun Liu; Jin-Ling Li; Johannes Müller (2011). "A new captorhinid reptile, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Permian of China". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (5): 435–441. Bibcode:2011NW.....98..435R. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0793-0. PMID 21484260. 
    19. ^ Robert R. Reisz; Sean P. Modesto; Diane M. Scott (2011). "A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278 (1725): 3731–3737. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0439. PMC 3203498Freely accessible. PMID 21525061. 
    20. ^ Fischer, V.; Masure, E.; Arkhangelsky, M.S.; Godefroit, P. (2011). "A new Barremian (Early Cretaceous) ichthyosaur from western Russia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (5): 1010–1025. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.595464. 
    21. ^ Li, Chun; Olivier Rieppel; Xiao-Chun Wu; Li-Jun Zhao; Li-Ting Wang (2011). "A new Triassic marine reptile from southwestern China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (2): 303–312. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.550368. 
    22. ^ A. Yu. Berezin (2011). "A new plesiosaur of the family Aristonectidae from the early cretaceous of the center of the Russian platform". Paleontological Journal. 45 (6): 648–660. doi:10.1134/S0031030111060037. 
    23. ^ Shang Qing-Hua; Wu Xiao-Chun; Li Chun (2011). "A new eosauropterygian from Middle Triassic of eastern Yunnan Province, southwestern China" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 49 (2): 155–171. doi:10.19615/j.cnki.1000-3118.2011.02.002. 
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