1257 Samalas eruption

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Map of Lombok Island with Samalas in the upper part of the island
The purple surface surrounded by white is the Samalas caldera.

The 1257 Samalas eruption was a major eruption of the Samalas volcano, next to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island in Indonesia. The eruption left behind a large caldera that contains Lake Segara Anak.[1] This eruption probably had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7, making it one of the largest eruptions of the current Holocene epoch.

Before the site of the eruption was known, an examination of ice cores around the world had found a large spike in sulfate deposition around 1257, which is strong evidence of a large volcanic eruption having occurred somewhere in the world. In 2013, scientists proved that the eruption occurred at Mount Samalas.

This eruption had four distinct phases, alternately creating eruption columns reaching tens of kilometres into the atmosphere and pyroclastic flows burying large parts of Lombok Island. The flows destroyed human habitations, including the city of Pamatan which was the capital of a kingdom on Lombok. Ash from the eruption fell as far away as Java Island. The volcano deposited more than 10 cubic kilometres (2.4 cu mi) of material. The eruption was witnessed by people who recorded it on documents written on palm leaves, the Babad Lombok. Later volcanic activity created additional volcanic centres in the caldera, including the Barujari cone that remains active.

The aerosols injected into the atmosphere reduced the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, which cooled the atmosphere for several years and led to famines and crop failures in Europe and elsewhere, although the exact scale of the temperature anomalies and their consequences is still debated. It is possible that the eruption helped trigger the Little Ice Age, a centuries-old cold period during the last thousand years.

Geology

General geology

Samalas and Mount Rinjani are in the Sunda Arc[2] of Indonesia,[3] a subduction zone where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate. The magmas feeding Samalas and Rinjani probably are derived from peridotite rocks beneath Lombok Island, in the so-called mantle wedge.[2] Other volcanoes in the region include Agung and Batur plus Bratan on the island of Bali to the west.[4] Before the eruption, Samalas may have been as high as 4,200 ± 100 metres (13,780 ± 330 ft). This estimate is based on reconstructions that extrapolate from the surviving lower slopes upwards.[5]

The oldest geological units on Lombok Island are from the Oligocene-Miocene,[6][3] with old volcanic units cropping out in southern Lombok.[7][6] Before 12,000 BP, volcanic activity built up the Samalas volcano. During a phase between 11,940 ± 40 and 2,550 ± 50 BP the Rinjani volcano formed;[3] this last eruption generated the Rinjani pumice with a volume of 0.3 cubic kilometres (0.072 cu mi) dense rock equivalent;[8] the dense rock equivalent is a measure of how voluminous the magma that the pyroclastic material originated from was.[9] The deposits of the last eruption reached thicknesses of 6 centimetres (2.4 in) at 28 kilometres (17 mi) distance,[10] although later research suggests that this eruption may have occurred on Samalas instead.[11] Another eruption took place between 5,990 ± 50 and 2,550 ± 50 BP forming the Propok Pumice with a dense rock equivalent volume of 0.1 cubic kilometres (0.024 cu mi). Additional eruptions by either Rinjani or Samalas are dated 11,980 ± 40, 11,940 ± 40, 6,250 ± 40 BP,[12] and eruptive activity continued until about 500 years before 1257.[13] Then, a large caldera-forming eruption destroyed Samalas volcano. Later volcanic activity occurred in the Segara Anak caldera, forming the Segara Munac, Rombogan, and Barujari volcanoes.[14] Most volcanic activity now occurs at the Barujari volcano with eruptions in 1884, 1904, 1906, 1909, 1915, 1966, 1994, 2004, and 2009. Rombogan was active in 1944. Volcanic activity mostly consists of explosive eruptions and ash flows.[15]

The rocks of the Samalas volcano are mostly dacitic, SiO
2
contents range between 62–63 percent by weight.[3] Volcanic rocks in the Banda arc are mostly calc-alkaline ranging from basalt over andesite to dacite.[15] The volcano rests on crust of about 20 kilometres (12 mi) thickness, and the lower extremity of the Wadati–Benioff zone is about 164 kilometres (102 mi) deep.[2]

Eruption

A small cone rising above a greenish lake within a large crater on a mountain
The Segara Anak caldera, which was created by the eruption

The eruption of 1257 probably occurred in September,[16] and the sequence of events has been reconstructed through geological analysis of the deposits left by the eruption. It commenced with a first phreatic (steam explosion powered) stage that deposited 3 centimetres (1.2 in) of ash over 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) of northwest Lombok Island. The first magmatic stage followed, lithic-rich pumice rained down, with the fallout reaching a thickness of 8 centimetres (3.1 in) both upwind on East Lombok and on Bali.[12] Subsequently, various phases of lapilli rock and ash fallout occurred, as well as pyroclastic flows that were partially confined within the valleys on Samalas's western flank. Some ash deposits were eroded by the pyroclastic flows, generating furrow structures in the ash. Pyroclastic flows even crossed the Bali Sea, reaching the Gili Islands to the northwest. This eruption phase was probably phreatomagmatic, as the deposits show evidence of interaction of the lava with water. Three pumice fallout episodes subsequently occurred, which covered the widest extent of all deposits formed by the eruption.[17] These pumices fell as far as Sumbawa in the east, where they are up to 7 centimetres (2.8 in) thick.[18]

The emplacement of these pumices was followed by another stage of pyroclastic flow activity, probably caused by the collapse of the eruption column which generated the flows. At this time the eruption changed from an eruption column generating stage to a fountain-like stage and the caldera began to form. These pyroclastic flows were deflected by the topography of the island, filling valleys and flowing around obstacles such as older volcanoes as they flowed across the island incinerating the island's vegetation. Interaction between these flows and air triggered the formation of additional eruption clouds and secondary pyroclastic flows. Where the flows entered the sea north and east of Lombok Island, steam explosions created pumice cones on the beaches and additional secondary pyroclastic flows.[18] These pyroclastic flows on-land reached volumes of 29 cubic kilometres (7.0 cu mi),[19] and thicknesses of 35 metres (115 ft) as far away as 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Samalas.[20] The various phases of the eruption are also known as P1 (phreatic and first magmatic phase), P2 (phreatomagmatic with pyroclastic flows), P3 (plinian) and P4 (pyroclastic flows).[21] The P1 and P3 phases of the eruption together lasted between 12 and 15 hours.[22]

The eruption column from this eruption reached a height of 39–40 kilometres (24–25 mi) during the first stage (P1),[23] and of 43–38 kilometres (27–24 mi) during the third stage (P3).[22] This eruption column was high enough that SO
2
in it and its S isotope ratio was influenced by photolysis at high altitudes.[24]

Estimates of the volumes erupted during the various stages of the Samalas eruption have yielded variable results. The first stage reached a volume of 12.6–13.4 cubic kilometres (3.0–3.2 cu mi). The second phreatomagmatic phase has been estimated to have had a volume of 0.9–3.5 cubic kilometres (0.22–0.84 cu mi).[25] The total dense rock equivalent volume of the whole eruption was at least 40 cubic kilometres (9.6 cu mi).[26] The magma erupted was trachydacitic and contained amphibole, apatite, clinopyroxene, iron sulfide, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, and titanomagnetite. It formed out of basaltic magma by fractional crystallization[27] and had a temperature of about 1,000 °C (1,830 °F).[5] Its eruption may have been triggered either by the entry of new magma into the magma chamber or the effects of gas bubble buoyancy.[28]

The eruption had a volcanic explosivity index of 7,[29] making it one of the largest eruptions of the current Holocene epoch.[30] Eruptions of comparable intensity include the Kurile lake eruption (in Kamchatka, Russia) in the 7th millennium BC, the Mount Mazama (United States, Oregon) eruption in the 6th millennium BC, the Minoan eruption (in Santorini, Greece), and the Tierra Blanca Joven eruption of Lake Ilopango (El Salvador) in the 6th century.[30] Such large volcanic eruptions can result in catastrophic impacts on humans and widespread loss of life both close and far away from the volcano.[31]

Tephra in the form of layers of fine ash from the eruption fell as far as Java, forming part of the so-called Muntilan Tephra which was found on the slopes of other volcanoes of Java, but could not be linked to eruptions in these volcanic systems; this tephra is now considered to be a product of the 1257 eruption and is thus also known as the Samalas Tephra.[32][18] These tephras reach thicknesses of 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) on Mount Merapi, 15 centimetres (5.9 in) on Mount Bromo, 22 centimetres (8.7 in) at Ijen[33] and 12–17 centimetres (4.7–6.7 in) on Bali's Agung volcano. In Lake Logung on Java it was 3 centimetres (1.2 in) thick. Most of the tephra was deposited west-southwest of Samalas.[34] Considering the thickness of Samalas tephras found at Mount Merapi, the total volume may have reached 32–39 cubic kilometres (7.7–9.4 cu mi).[35] The dispersal index (the surface area covered by an ash or tephra fall) of the eruption reached 7,500 square kilometres (2,900 sq mi) during the first stage and 110,500 square kilometres (42,700 sq mi) during the third stage, implying that it was a Plinian eruption and an ultraplinian eruption respectively.[26]

Pumice falls with a fine graining and colour of cream from the Samalas eruption have been used as a tephrochronological marker on Bali;[36] tephrochronology is a technique that uses dated layers of tephra to correlate and synchronize events.[37] Tephra from the volcano was found in ice cores as far as 13,500 kilometres (8,400 mi) away from Samalas,[38] and a tephra layer sampled at Dongdao island in the South China Sea has been tentatively linked to Samalas.[39] Ash and aerosols may have impacted humans and corals at large distances from the eruption.[40]

The eruption left the Segara Anak caldera, which has a diameter of 6–7 kilometres (3.7–4.3 mi), where the Samalas mountain was before;[14] within its 700–2,800 metres (2,300–9,200 ft) high walls, a 200 metres (660 ft) deep crater lake formed. The Barujari cone rises 320 metres (1,050 ft) above the water of the lake and has erupted 15 times since 1847.[8] A crater lake may have already existed on Samalas before the eruption and supplied its phreatomagmatic phase with 0.1–0.3 cubic kilometres (0.024–0.072 cu mi) of water. Alternatively, the water could have come from aquifers.[41] A collapse structure cuts into Rinjani's slopes facing the Samalas caldera.[5]

The eruption that formed the caldera was first recognized in 2003, and in 2004 a volume of 10 cubic kilometres (2.4 cu mi) was attributed to this eruption.[12] Early research considered that the caldera-forming eruption occurred between 1210 and 1300. In 2013, Lavigne suggested that the eruption occurred in May–October 1257, resulting in the climate changes of 1258.[14] Presently, a number of villages on Lombok are constructed on the pyroclastic flow deposits from the 1257 event.[42]

Research history

The major volcanic event in 1257–1258 was first identified from data in ice cores and from medieval records in the northern hemisphere which mentioned climate phenomena[43] that are characteristic for volcanic eruptions. Increased sulfate concentrations were first found during the 1980s[44] in the Crête ice core (Greenland)[45] associated with a deposit of rhyolitic ash.[46] The sulfur deposits in the polar ice caps had already showed that climate disturbances reported in that time were due to a volcanic event, with the global spread indicating a tropical volcano as the cause,[1] although at first a source in a volcano near Greenland had been considered.[44] These ice cores indicated a large sulfate spike around 1257, the largest in 7,000 years and twice the size of the 1815 eruption of Tambora sulfate spike,[47] but later-discovered sulfate spikes around 44 BC and 426 BC rival its size.[48] In 2003, a dense rock equivalent volume of 200–800 cubic kilometres (48–192 cu mi) was estimated for this eruption,[49] but it was also proposed that the eruption might have been somewhat smaller and enriched in sulfur.[50] The volcano responsible was thought to be located in the Ring of Fire[51] but could not be identified at first;[43] Tofua volcano in Tonga was proposed at first but dismissed, as the Tofua eruption was too small to generate the 1257 sulfate spikes.[52] Likewise, a volcanic eruption in 1256 at Harrat al-Rahat near Medina was too small to trigger these events.[53] Other proposals included several simultaneous eruptions.[54] Estimated diameters of the calderas left by the eruption ranged 10–30 kilometres (6.2–18.6 mi).[55]

The suggestion that Samalas/Rinjani might be the source volcano was first made in 2012, since the other candidate volcanoes – El Chichon and Quilotoa – did not match the chemistry of the sulfur spikes.[56] El Chichon and Quilotoa and Okataina were also inconsistent with the timespan and size of the eruption.[57] The conclusive link between these events and an eruption of Samalas was made in 2013 on the basis of historical records in Indonesia: the Babad Lombok, writings in Old Javanese on palm leaves,[43] written in the 13th century, induced Franck Lavigne, who had already suspected that a volcano on Lombok may be responsible, to conclude that the Samalas volcano was responsible.[44]

All houses were destroyed and swept away, floating on the sea, and many people died

— Javanese text, [58]

This event occurred before the end of the 13th century.[5] The role of the Samalas eruption in the global climate events was confirmed by comparing the geochemistry of glass shards found in ice cores to that of the eruption deposits on Lombok.[1]

Climate effects

Ice cores in the northern and southern hemisphere display sulfate spikes associated with Samalas, the signal being the strongest in the southern hemisphere for the last 1000 years and being only exceeded by Laki's signal in the northern;[59] one reconstruction even considers it the strongest of the last 2500 years.[60] In addition, ice cores from Illimani in Bolivia contain sulfate spikes from the eruption.[61] For comparison, the 1991 eruption of Pinatubo ejected only about a tenth of the amount of sulfur erupted by Samalas.[62] Sulfate deposition from the Samalas eruption has been noted at Svalbard,[63] and the fallout of sulfuric acid from the volcano may have directly affected peatlands in northern Sweden.[64] The amount of SO
2
released by the eruption has been estimated to be 158,000,000 ± 12,000,000 tonnes (156,000,000 ± 12,000,000 long tons; 174,000,000 ± 13,000,000 short tons);[27] the mass release was increased in comparison with the Tambora eruption due to a more effective injection of tephra into the stratosphere and/or higher sulfur contents of the Samalas magma.[65] After the eruption, it probably took weeks to months for the fallout to reach large distances from the volcano.[51] The sulfate fallout from the eruption has been used as a time marker in ice cores.[66]

When large scale volcanic eruptions inject aerosols into the atmosphere, they can form stratospheric veils, which reduce the amount of light reaching the surface. That reduces the temperatures on much of the Earth and can cause problems in agriculture including famine. The social effects of such events, however, are often reduced by the resilience of humans.[67] Not all years with cold summers are linked to volcanic activity.[68] Volcanic eruptions can also deliver bromine and chlorine into the stratosphere, where they contribute to the breakdown of ozone. While most bromine and chlorine erupted would have been scavenged by the eruption column and thus would not have entered the stratosphere, the quantities that have been modelled for the Samalas halogen release (227,000,000 ± 18,000,000 tonnes (223,000,000 ± 18,000,000 long tons; 250,000,000 ± 20,000,000 short tons) of chlorine and up to 1,300,000 ± 300,000 tonnes (1,280,000 ± 300,000 long tons; 1,430,000 ± 330,000 short tons) of bromine) would have reduced stratospheric ozone.[27]

Samalas, along with the Kuwae eruption in the 1450s and Tambora in 1815, was one of the strongest cooling events in the last millennium, even more so than at the peak of the Little Ice Age.[69] After an early warm winter 1257–1258 (winter warming is frequently observed after tropical volcanic eruptions), resulting in the early flowering of violets according to reports from France,[70] European summers were colder after the eruption,[71] and winters were long and cold.[72]

According to earlier reconstructions, summer cooling reached 0.69 K (1.24 °F) in the Southern Hemisphere and 0.46 K (0.83 °F) in the Northern Hemisphere.[73] More recent proxy data have indicated that a temperature drop of 0.7 °C (1.3 °F) occurred in 1258 and of 1.2 °C (2.2 °F) in 1259, but with differences between various geographical areas.[74] For comparison, the radiation forcing of Pinatubo's 1991 eruption was about a seventh of that of the Samalas eruption.[75] Sea surface temperatures likewise decreased by 0.3–2.2 °C (0.54–3.96 °F),[76] triggering changes in the ocean circulations and in the formation of deep water. Temperature changes may have lasted for a decade.[77] Precipitation and evaporation both decreased as well, but the decrease of evaporation was stronger.[78]

The Samalas signal, however, is only inconsistently reported from tree ring climate information,[79][80] and the temperature effects were likewise limited, probably because the large sulfate output altered the average size of particles and thus their radiation forcing.[81] Climate modelling indicated that the Samalas eruption may have reduced global temperatures by approximately 2 °C (3.6 °F), a value largely not replicated by proxy data. Better modelling indicated that the principal temperature anomaly occurred in 1258 and continued until 1261.[82] Climate models tend to overestimate the climate impact of a volcanic eruption;[83] one explanation is that climate models tend to assume that aerosol optical depth increases linearly with the quantity of erupted sulfur.[84] The possible occurrence of an El Nino before the eruption may have further reduced the cooling.[85]

The Samalas eruption together with another eruption in the 14th century set off a growth of ice caps and sea ice,[86] and glaciers in Norway advanced. It might also have modified the North Atlantic oscillation, causing it to acquire more negative values in the subsequent decades in co-operation with a beginning decrease in solar activity as part of the Wolf minimum in the solar cycle.[87] The advances of ice after the Samalas eruption may have strengthened and prolonged the climate effects.[64] Later volcanic activity in 1269, 1278, and 1286 and the effects of sea ice on the North Atlantic would have further contributed to ice expansion.[88] The glacier advances triggered by the Samalas eruption are documented on Baffin Island, where vegetation killed by the advancing ice was conserved in it.[89] Likewise, a change from a warm climate phase to a colder one, in Arctic Canada, coincides with the Samalas eruption.[90]

The Samalas eruption came after the Medieval Climate Anomaly,[91] a period early in the last millennium with unusually warm temperatures,[92] and at a time where a period of climate stability was ending, with prior eruptions in 1108, 1171, and 1230 already having upset global climate. Subsequent time periods displayed increased volcanic activity until the early 20th century.[93] The time period 1250–1300 was heavily disturbed by volcanic activity,[88] and is recorded by a moraine from a glacial advance on Disko Island,[94] although the moraine may indicate a pre-Samalas cold spell.[95] These volcanic disturbances along with positive feedback effects from increased ice may have started the Little Ice Age even without the need for changes in solar radiation,[96][97] this theory is not without disagreement.[98] The Little Ice Age is a time in the last thousand years during which for several centuries temperatures were depressed.[92]

The eruption left traces, including decreased tree growth in Mongolia between 1258–1262 based on tree ring data,[99] frost rings (tree rings damaged by frost during the growth season[100]) and light tree rings in Canada and northwestern Siberia from 1258 and 1259 respectively,[101] a very wet monsoon in Vietnam,[58] and a decade-long thinning of tree rings in Norway and Sweden.[102] Another effect of the eruption-induced climate change may have been a brief decrease of atmospheric CO
2
.[54] Cooling may have lasted for 4–5 years based on simulations and tree ring data.[103]

Other regions such as Alaska were mostly unaffected,[104] with little evidence that tree growth was affected in the Western United States;[105] in the latter the eruption may have interrupted a prolonged drought period.[106] In the case of Alaska, possibly the climate effect was moderated by the nearby ocean.[107] In 1259 on the other hand western Europe and the west coastal North America had mild weather.[74]

Other inferred effects of the eruption are:

Social and historical consequences

This eruption led to global disaster in 1257–1258.[1] Very large volcanic eruptions can cause destruction both close to the volcano[112] and through their effects on climate can cause significant human hardship including famine away from the volcano.[67] The consequences can affect the whole globe.[113]

Lombok Kingdom and Bali (Indonesia)

Western and central Indonesia at the time were dominated by many kingdoms in competition with each other, and they often built temple complexes with inscriptions documenting certain kinds of historical events;[31] however very little direct historical evidence of the consequences of the Samalas eruption exists.[114] The Babad Lombok describe how villages on Lombok were destroyed during the middle 13th century by ash and high-speed sweeps of gas and rocks,[43] and is also the source of the name "Samalas".[7] The city of Pamatan, capital of a kingdom on Lombok, was destroyed, with both capital and kingdom disappearing from the historical record. The royal family survived the disaster according to the Javanese text[115] and there is no clear cut evidence that the kingdom itself was destroyed by the eruption although the history there is poorly known in general.[114] Thousands of people died during the eruption.[5] In Bali the number of inscriptions dropped off after the eruption.[116] Bali and Lombok Island may have been depopulated by the eruption,[117] possibly for generations, allowing King Kertanegara of Singhasari on Java to conquer Bali in 1284 with little resistance.[118][116]

Oceania

Historical events in Oceania are usually poorly dated and thus the timing and role of any specific event are difficult to assess. There is evidence however that between 1250-1300 crisis periods took place in Oceania such as at Easter Island, which may be linked with the beginning of the Little Ice Age and the Samalas eruption.[40] Changes in archeological sites of the Pacific may have been caused by a sea level drop that occurred after 1250, and the 1991 eruption of Pinatubo has been linked to small drops in sea level.[119]

Europe

The consequences of the Samalas eruption have been analyzed thanks to contemporary chronicles in Europe, which documented anomalous weather conditions in 1258.[120] Reports in 1258 in France and England indicate a dry fog, giving the impression of a persistent cloud cover to contemporary observers.[121] Medieval chronicles say that in 1258, the summer was cold and rainy, causing floods and bad harvests,[57] with cold from February to June.[122] Frost occurred in the summer 1259 according to Russian chronicles.[101] In Europe and the Middle East, changes in atmospheric colours, storms, cold, and severe weather were reported in 1258–1259,[123] with agricultural problems extending to Northern Africa.[124] In Europe, excess rain and cold and high cloudiness damaged crops and caused famines followed by epidemics,[125][58] although 1258–1259 did not lead to famines as bad as some later ones like the Great Famine of 1315–17.[126] In northwest Europe, the effects included crop failure, famine, and weather changes.[86] A famine in London have been linked to this event,[29] and while this food crisis was not extraordinary[127] and there had been issues with harvests already before the eruption[128] among other famine events it is the first well documented food crisis in England.[127] The famine occurred at a time of political crisis between King Henry III of England and the English magnates.[129] Witnesses reported a death toll of 15,000 to 20,000 in London. A mass burial of famine victims was found in the 1990s in the centre of London.[58] Matthew Paris of St Albans described how until mid-August in 1258, the weather alternated between cold and strong rain, causing high mortality.[130]

Swollen and rotting in groups of five or six, the dead lay abandoned in pigsties, on dunghills, and in the muddy streets.

— Matthew Paris, chronicler of St. Albans, [130]

The resulting famine was severe enough that grain was imported from Germany and Holland.[131] The price for cereal increased in Britain,[123] France, and Italy. Outbreaks of disease occurred during this time in the Middle East and England.[132] With and after the winter of 1258–9, exceptional weathers were reported less commonly, but the winter of 1260–1 was very severe in Iceland, Italy, and elsewhere.[133] Over the long term, the cooling of and sea ice expansion in the North Atlantic may have impacted the societies of Greenland and Iceland[134] by restraining navigation and agriculture, perhaps allowing further climate shocks around 1425 to end the existence of the Norse settlement in Greenland.[135]

Byzantine Empire

Potential long term consequences of the eruption were the Byzantine Empire losing control over western Anatolia, resulting from a shift in the political power from Byzantine farmers to mostly Turkoman pastoralists in the area. Colder winters caused by the eruption would have impacted agriculture more severely than pastoralism.[136] The origins of the Flagellante movement may also be the social distress triggered by the eruption, but warfare and other plights probably played a more important role than natural events.[137]

Four Corners region, North America

The 1257 Samalas eruption took place during the Pueblo III Period in southwestern North America, during which the Mesa Verde region on the San Juan River was the site of the so-called cliff dwellings. Several sites were abandoned after the Samalas eruption, which had cooled the local climate.[138] This eruption[139] along with other volcanic eruptions during this period, may have triggered climate stresses that caused strife within the society of the Ancestral Puebloans, possibly eventually causing them to leave the northern Colorado Plateau.[140]

Altiplano, South America

In the Altiplano of South America, a cold and dry interval between 1200 and 1450 has been associated with the Samalas eruption and the 1280 eruption of Quilotoa volcano in Ecuador. At this time, the application of rain-fed agriculture increased in the area between the Salar de Uyuni and the Salar de Coipasa despite the climatic change, implying that the local population effectively coped with the effects of the eruption.[141]

Northeast Asia

Problems were also recorded in China, Japan, and Korea;[58] in Japan, the Mirror of the East chronicle from Azuma Kagami mentions that rice paddies and gardens were destroyed by the cold and wet weather,[142] and the so-called Shôga famine may have been aggravated by bad weather in 1258 and 1259.[126] Other effects of the eruption include a total darkening of the Moon in May 1258 during a lunar eclipse.[143] The effects of the eruption may also have hastened the decline of the Mongol Empire, although the volcanic event is unlikely to be solely responsible.[119]

See also

References

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Coordinates: 8°24′36″S 116°24′30″E / 8.41000°S 116.40833°E / -8.41000; 116.40833

External links

  • Mass grave in London reveals how volcano caused global catastrophe
  • Google Earth view of the north of Lombok including Rinjani and the caldera
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